The essay describes Hansen's Disease in ancient DNA samples, the history of the disease and the ways which were implemented for giving clear ideas about the prevalence of leprosy among ancient community…
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Mycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy was identified by G. H. A. Hansen in the 19th century and therefore leprosy is also called as Hansen's Disease (Alter et al., p.19). “It is transmitted through mucous secretions of the diseased individual. The symptoms of the disease include hypopigmented lesions enlarged peripheral nerves and skin anesthesia”(Piris et al., p.125) “Hansen's disease, also known as leprosy, remains an important public health problem throughout the world. The causative microbe in Hansen's disease is Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast organism that is difficult to grow in vitro” (Legendre et al., p.27). Hansen's disease is one of the oldest diseases reported in the history. Holy Bible, both New Testaments and Old Testaments, say many incidents related to the leprosy patients. As in the case of AIDS or HIV, it is difficult to predict how leprosy evolved in this world. Medical scientists are currently analyzing ancient DNA samples to find out more details about the origin of Hansen's disease. Anuja et al (2011) pointed out that “tissue changes in oral tissues do happen in some cases of leprosy and the causative organism Mycobacterium leprae can be demonstrated” (Anuja et al., p. 31). ...
DNA is the molecule that contains the genetic information needed for a living organism to develop and function. When an organism dies the DNA molecules start to degrade, breaking up into shorter strands. These fragments are sections (?sequences?) of the original DNA and can be used in ancient DNA comparisons and identifications (Elderset al., p.2). “Ancient DNA studies allowed us to study organisms that went extinct more than ten thousand years ago, to reconstruct their phenotypic traits and evolution” (Grigorenko et al.). According to Mitchel et al., (2005), “Ancient DNA contains information pertinent to numerous fields of study including evolution, population genetics, ecology, climatology, medicine, archeology, and behavior” (Mitchel et al., p.265). However, it is extremely difficult to collect such DNAs because of the inability of it to survive longer periods. Taking DNA’s from archaeological human remains will help the medical science immensely in getting more details about leprosy. But, it is extremely difficult to detect DNA remnants in Human skeleton collected from countries in which hot and humid conditions exist. For example, it is difficult to collect suitable DNA samples from human skeletons found in Asian countries because of the comparatively hot climate exists in this part of the world. An integral aspect of any ancient DNA (aDNA) work is to deal with inevitably aged and degraded specimens, most commonly bones or teeth. Despite countless samples being available, only a few are suitable for aDNA studies as little or no DNA has survived over time. In the attempt to facilitate the identification of samples with adequate DNA preservation, indirect measures of preservation have been
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Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) is used to resolve the single-stranded fragments according to size which is determined by the point of breakage. An autograph representing the nucleotide base as occurring in the DNA fragments is then generated from the gel where bases are read and the sequence derived.
As can be inferred, its inheritance is ruled by Mendelian codominance, wherein IA and IB are codominant alleles, while i is the recessive allele (Campbell and Reece, 2002). Thus, if a parent with a blood type A or B has an I-i, then it is possible that his or her child can have blood type O, especially when the other parent has an I-i or ii genotype.
The answer lies in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and its unique composition. Like a fingerprint, each person has a unique DNA sequence that contributes to their individuality (NIH). DNA then goes on to encode for unique proteins that act as markers in the blood, which help lab technicians make specific identifications (NIH).
On April 25th, 1953, the now famous scientific pair of Watson and Crick attempted to finally answer this question (Fredholm). They claimed that an elegant molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, was the “God Molecule”, the blueprint for every protein in our body (and the subsequent molecules those proteins go on to make), the stuff of life (What Is DNA?
With this achievement, it is already implied that the said company remarkably created strategic moves that continuously increased its rank based on market performance, profitability, efficiency and productivity. There is a combined effort of ensuring efficient human resource management and strategic implementation of plans, and other management related concerns which may ensure dominance of Hansen’s Natural in its industry.
There are many different base pairs in a human being and these base pairs are used for identification of people. Due to a lot of base pairs the tasks of identification becomes very time consuming so that’s the reason why scientists use repeating patterns in DNA.DNA profiling is basically used with DNA testing.
Whenever such movements of stomach acids likes the hydrochloric acid that help in the digestion of food leaks from the stomach back to the esophagus, the mucus lining of the wall prevent them from corroding the esophagus. Additionally, such backward movement of stomach and intestinal acids are rare since the digestion system has a mechanism of enclosing both the stomach and the intestines thus preventing such occurrences.
Mitochondrial Eve is the name given by researchers to a female that is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all living humans. Eve is known due to mitochondrial DNA, and the comparison of DNA sequences from mtDNA reveals a phylogeny. Mitochondrial Eve is thought to have resided in Africa 150,000 years ago.
ular belief, leprosy does not cause body parts to detach themselves from the body; however, the infection can cause the limbs to become numb or diseased, giving the sensation of having fallen off.
Leprosy dates back over four thousand years, with the earliest recording dating
Scientific research studies indicated that people who often drink tea in large amounts are susceptible to develop a painful bone disease called skeletal fluorosis. Its symptoms are joint pain similar to arthritis and bone loss similar to
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