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SHORT ANSWER INSTRUCTIONS (125 WORDS EACH PLEASE) •Provide a definition of the term. •Discuss why the concept is important in anthropological research. •Provide an example of this concept in your daily life. •Cite your reference sources. (use 4 resources of your choice, APA format) 1…
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Download file to see previous pages... It can be described as the stage that a particular society or individual has reached e.g. stone age culture. It covers such things as shared ethics and beliefs as well behaviour. As long ago as 1889 Taylor defined culture as ‘ the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member society.’ Anthropology is the study of these various cultures. I belong to early 21st century westernised socity. Culture is affected by environment, but also by what the group want. Breen declared ( 2006)that culture was society’s answer to life’s basic questions. Human society has come up with many different answers over time , as varied as Egypt under the Pharaohs to modern street culture. 2. Reciprocity, General, Balanced and Negative. In general reciprocity refers to relationships . These can involve only two individuals or many more as in a village or town, a team or a school class. A balanced reciprocity is a situation involving trust on both sides, where each benefits equally from a relationship e.g. a loving couple. It could also refer to the common negative aspects of this, such as some lack of individual choice and freedom. Negative reciprocity occurs when, in one of many ways, resources are broken down. Some factors involved are accepted by society e.g. a trader needing to make a profit. As a customer I realize this and am happy because he has given me something, even at a cost. Slave labor is an example of a very negative reciprocity. These various relationships are studied by anthropologists in order to better understand society in its many forms. 3. Extended Family - this refers to all the people one is related to, however distant the relationship. It includes both blood relationships, and also those who are related by marriage or partnership with a blood relative i.e in-laws and partners. This means not just a set of parents and children, but their spouses, cousins, aunts and all the rest. A clan or tribe can , in many instance, be considered as an extended family, and all humans belong to the world wide family of humanity, both those alive and those who preceded us. Perhaps this is why I can see a face from far away and recognise family likenesses. A nuclear family refers to one couple and their offspring as an isolated unit. In many instances in modern society this nuclear family will live alone, away from other extended family members. According to Sixth Sense’ ( 2005) functionalists see this type of family as positive as it means that the human race is continuing. Study of both kinds of family can help with planning for such things as education, marketing, house building and economics. 4. Kinship . This is defined as a relationship by blood ( consanguinity) or adoption and generally refers to family relationships . Often in a kinship group there will be shared characteristics such as dark hair, or great height. The members of such a group may also share common ethical and moral ideas, which is why some family members find it difficult when a member joins , perhaps in marriage, with someone from a very different group who hold differing ideas. The term can also be used for those , not necessarily related, but who share an affinity in that there are common bonds such as my fellow students in college, in that what affects one affects the others e.g. the price of accommodation or a liking for a certain type of music.. The term is defined by the Sociology Dictionary ( ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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