The two most remarkable, historically awe-inspiring ancient pillars in Britain are Stonehenge and Avebury. Stonehenge is a deeply cherished and excessively visited heritage site in the province of Wiltshire, England. …
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Stonehenge was included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List in 1986 (Blain & Wallis, 2007, p. 47). Archaeologists believe that the Stonehenge is a place of worship, spherical and proportioned, encircling and sheltering its holy interior. It is located on a high plain, desolate, barren, and exposed. Many remarked that the site was inappropriate or badly chosen. The Stonehenge would have appeared grander and more striking on a high landscape, but it was built on a lower ground and on an irregular terrain. This made it difficult for the builders to level out the ring of lintel stones. But the site must have been chosen for a very important reason—for measuring the earth (Heath & Michell, 2006, pp. 104-105). The site of Stonehenge connects extensively with other locations in a recognised patterning over Britain. Stonehenge was neglected by 1500 BC. Nowadays, almost all of the bluestones are missing. The construction of roads and other human activities made the stones weak. Sooner or later, Stonehenge became an unremarkable pile of boulders and rocks. The monument was further damaged by visitors who took stones from the site (Heath & Michell, 2006, p. 105). The British government finally decided to intervene in 1922 (Blain & Wallis, 2007, p. 47). It started the restoration of Stonehenge. Eventually, Stonehenge became one of the most visited and famous tourist destinations in England. But visitors remained a serious threat to the survival of the monument. Thus, greater effort should be exerted to save Stonehenge. Similar to Stonehenge, Avebury is a haven, the centre of widespread, glorified scenery. Ancient paths throughout southern England all meet in Avebury. The area surrounding Avebury was sanctified land, dedicated to the provisions of officers and priests who arrange and manage regular events, rituals, and festivals. At the centre of it was the ceremonial area, isolated from the material world by a cavernous canal and a surrounding wall of chalk and mud (Heath & Michell, 2006, p. 70). Two important geographical attributes are observed in Avebury. First is its location not distant from the middle of the central position of southern England, the direct route between its two edges at Cornwall’s Land’s End and on the coastline of East Anglia. This is also the pilgrimage path through the western provinces and of the ancient Icknield Way via the eastern provinces. The second attribute of the position of Avebury is as follows (Heath & Michell, 2006, p. 70): Through its central enclosure runs the line of latitude that marks one seventh part of the earth’s meridian, or circumference through the poles, starting at the equator. In other words, Avebury is at latitude 360/7 degrees. Hence, the second geographical attribute of Avebury is of worldwide importance. It is the major spot in Britain. In 1986, Stonehenge and Avebury were included in the World Heritage Site (WHS) List for their marvellous prehistoric shrines. The Great Stones Way was an ambitious project that aims to connect the Stonehenge and Avebury through a walking trail. This effort attracted more tourists to Britain’s prehistoric sites. The Most Important Convention/Legislation/Framework to Protect the Site In 1978, a roped footpath was added to Stonehenge. Visitors are prohibited to go beyond this roped footpath. This contributes to the effort of preserving the ancient pillars. Hundreds of thousands of people visit the monument every year. Unfortunately, the Avenue has almost disappeared from plain sight. Rather, a public road crosses a route to Salisbury Plain (Smith, 2009, p. 220). Vehicles bring pollution to the area. Modern buildings and infrastructures, crowds, and commotions all ruin the enigmatic ambience of Stonehenge. Therefore, preserving
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