IDENTIFYING THE ACADEMIC AND BEHAVIORAL SUPPORT NEEDS OF TEACHERS TEACHING IN LINUS CLASSROOMS IN MALAYSIA Name of Institution Introductory Chapter Malaysia began its formal teacher education at the beginning of the 20th century…
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Presently, there are about eight local based universities and the Intercontinental Islamic University which are engaged in the original training of Malaysian teachers in secondary schools. Moreover, the universities and other 28 colleges for teachers carry out the majority of Malaysian teacher education (SEAMEO Innotech, 2008). National Philosophy of Education (NPE) The National Philosophy of Education was officially put on record in 1988. The philosophy makes the use of the word ‘God’ in a basic manner to incorporate all beliefs. It is expected that having faith in God will foster positive principles that will facilitate the mitigation of social vices. The Malaysian National Philosophy of Education lays emphasis on the integration and balancing of the growth of sacred, academic, expressive and substantial realms. The education system is structured to attain this philosophy through three curricular tactics: thinking across the curriculum, values across the curriculum and language across the curriculum (Mock & Kauffman, 2002; p.211). Literacy and numeracy has placed the basis for teaching in primary education and beyond. Arithmetic, reading and writing are inherent in the fundamental rights to education. Lack of these potentials makes it unbearable for students to achieve higher efficacy in education and professional engagements in the contemporary society. Studies reveal that a section of Malaysian student populations are not well endowed with fundamental numeracy and literacy potential. For instance, in the year 2008, about 54,000 pupils in year one were selected with a low level of literacy expertise and admitted in the Initial class of Intervention Reading and writing while 117,000 year four pupils were admitted with no fundamental expertise in numeracy into a 3R remedial programme (Priestley & Rabiee, 2002; p. 371). Academic Support Needs of Teachers Teaching in LINUS classrooms in Malaysia The Malaysian government has a transformational program under the education National Key Results Area (NKRA) which targets to do away with the high rates of drop-outs caused by the inability of the students to deal with the demanding curriculum. There were about 31,939 dropouts from school in 2008 alone from both secondary and primary levels (Zalizan, 2000; p. 187). The main purpose of the Literacy and numeracy screening policy is to ensure that most Malaysian children get the fundamental skills in numeracy and literacy in the three years of mainstream primary education. NKRA education in Malaysia has established a target of 100% numeracy and literacy for all pupils in the entire three years. Using the fundamental literacy skills, the pupils are required to posses the capability to write, read and comprehend the phrases, plain and complicated sentences and make use of the information acquired in routine communication and learning (Malaysia, 2006). To attain the fundamental numeracy, pupils have the obligation to write, read and make counts of whole numbers from 1 to 1000 by the time they reach year three. They are also required to show the potential to get solutions to fundamental arithmetic skills and facts in the routine function, which involves time, measurements and currencies. As opposed to the earlier attempts in addressing the problems regarding numeracy and literacy, LINUS concentrates on the initial interventions during the initial primary years prior to the pupils’
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This research aims to propose to investigate the concept of ‘tacit knowledge‘ and its significance towards fostering the development of professional standards and applied technical skills, that has been intended for educating pre-service teachers of Industrial Design and Technology (IDT) subject areas.
Most of these researches and findings will be discussed in this chapter with an aim of appreciating and having an overview of the progress that has been made in this field of study. The literature review section will be divided into subtitles to ease the understanding amongst the uses of this proposed research.
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