European cinema has always been torn between two contrary objectives. The first motif comprises of a film’s economic aspect, global competition and international expansion, and the other one includes national film policy…
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After 1960, European cinema took itself to a new level by addressing to new and better class audiences. It also started deviating from the paradigm set by Hollywood regarding classical narrative cinemas. Melodrama first appeared in Hollywood during the era of pre- Hollywood silent cinema. During those times, it was equated with the subcategory of ‘woman’s film’ which invited female criticism on women’s ‘subaltern’ status. During the decade from 1970- 1980, European cinematic discourse took a different turn. It paved the way for “revalorization of the affective”. Through her works, Linda Williams led the way. This new way required placing of emotions in a broad category. She is also credited for taking the melodramatic genre beyond family melodramas or women – centric stories. As compared to European movies, the melodramatic movies of Hollywood contained “semiotic, psychoanalytic or ideological structures”. Melodramatic movies, in opinion of (LANDY, 1991, p. 19- 20) carried different interpretations. Groups supporting different film movements differ in opinions. In most parts of the Western Europe, as well as in Hollywood, realist melodramatic movie gained popularity. Society and social issues were the chief subjects of these movies. Melodrama, as a theatrical genre of Hollywood emphasizes more on subjectivity of emotions over social commentary. Everything related to emotions is externalized and presented in form of gestures (Deleuze and the cinemas of performance: powers of affection, 2008, p. 71). Music has played one of the most important roles when it comes to theatrical melodramas of nineteenth century. This tradition has remained unchanged even in twenty -first century. Thus, present day melodramatic movies bear subtle impression of traditional functions and conventions of music (Reay, 2004, p. 6). Conventions of Hollywood melodrama In European movies Since 1920, European cinema has set for an enterprise to have an individual identity and disassociate itself from Hollywood. Though the goal was achieved to a certain degree by countries like Germany, France and Italy, European cinema could never come out fully from Hollywood domains (Dyer and Vincendeau, 1992, p. 8). Chief notions of melodramas in Hollywood are- art is primarily used for criticism, domestic tragedy is a sub- genre of melodrama, virtuous characters suffer throughout the discourse it s worth noticing that, degree or possibility of suffering does not depend on person’s nature. Also, absolute happiness portrayed through characters are not practical in certain cases as in real life sufferings are inevitable. Lastly, the main character represents the entire population having similar problem. He or she stands for a whole mass seeking to change the course of actions or an entire system. Before ceasing its existence, melodrama in European film was deeply influenced by generic iconographies of Hollywood. General subject matters, perceived from a broader point of view were considered for producing melodramas. Hollywood’s influence could then be felt in European cinemas as the producers and directors made use of conventional Hollywood devices like “peplum files, historical swashbucklers, biblical epics and exotic adventure. All these were modifies and conditioned according to
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According to film scholars, the concept of the auteur actually refers to the original idea of the French filmmaker François Truffaut, who in his manifesto “The Policy of Auteurs,” declared that “Cinema as an art made by a film artist and not by a writer,” wherein the film artist, or the filmmaker, is actually the auteur.
Clerks (1994) cannot be challenged as one of the films which answers to every characteristic of the American independent film. American independent films or indies came to prosper with time and sponsorship. Clerks was the brainchild of an American film director and shot primarily on locations such as Atlantic Highlands and New Jersey, USA, this film originated in America.
As a result, many young moviegoers integrated many of these cinematic adaptations into their youth culture, and this provided a new platform for adult fantasies. During the late 1920’s, many critics began demanding government regulation and restriction of the cinema industry as a reaction to the sensationalistic death of many Hollywood leading ladies.
Having to depict life in movies is not just about entertainment but conveying life-learned messages to as many people as possible.Today, there are two great names when it comes to the genre of filmmaking: the famous Hollywood and the fierce HK Cinema. Hollywood films are known otherwise as the American films while Hong Kong films, basically the HK Cinema, are those films that originated in the East.
While the deeply entrenched studio system of Hollywood collapsed and the onset of commercial television set in among the national suburbanized landscape nationally, new Hollywood set in.With the setting in of New Hollywood, classical Hollywood was phased out gradually. The classical Hollywood era was characterized by mass production of movies by cartel studios for guaranteed market virtually. The phenomenon of going to the movies was replaced by watching television in the era of the new Hollywood (Cook 1990; Buscombe 1977; Schiach 1995) .
As per the above explanation, the film represented the life of boxer James Braddock where his was through actor Crowe Russell and its significance as a sport film. The film received several awards on different occasions including those of best picture to the best supporting actor, and outstanding motion picture drama awards categories among a list of other awards.
Let us take for instance the ever changing views of Hollywood, as depicted in its films, on Soviet Russia. Two of these films - Ninotchka (1939) and The North Star (1943) - show the fickle mindedness of Hollywood filmmakers. However, this fickle mindedness is just a mere reflection of the American people's sentiments toward Soviet Russia.
Two names come up when one searches for the “origin of Hollywood”. Havey Henderson Wilcox was from Kansas and was a rich real estate businessman. In 1886 he brought 160 acres of land in the country side to the west of the city at the foothills and the Cahuenga pass. It was he who paved the way for the development of this area.