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On Third Cinema - Essay Example

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Summary
Third Cinema is considered to be a form of an opposition cinema to the established film making schools of the capitalist countries. Though it originated in a so called ‘Third World’ nation, it did not remain confined with the developing countries…
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On Third Cinema

Download file to see previous pages... The term ‘Third Cinema’ was coined by in the 1960s by two filmmakers from Argentina: Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino. In 1968, after jointly directing a film: La Hora de los Hornos (Hour of the Furnaces), Solanas and Getino wrote their manifesto known as hacia un tercer cine (towards a third cinema). There the authors had identified three categories of cinema: the First, the Second and the Third World Cinema. The Third Cinema is a form of opposition to the film making institutions of the dominating nations of the world. For this reason, it has also been described as ‘militant cinema’. The Third Cinema is defined by its director’s conception of the world. It is not determined by the genre of the film or any particular political viewpoint expressed by the cinema. This kind of cinema first flourished in the 1960s. This was precisely the time when many colonized countries were rising in protest in the form of their National Liberalization Struggle against their western colonial powers. During this period, a group of film makers from the third world countries started making a new king of cinema. These were dynamic and politically stimulating films that represented the way of life and the political resistance in these less developed nations. Though these films were made on a variety of different themes, they were very different from the contemporary western cinema. The directors of the Third Cinema wanted to provide expressions to the dissatisfied citizens of the third world countries who were already voicing their opinions on the economic and political exploitations of the western powers. Third Cinema provided the platform where people were allowed to argue, struggle and make experimental films which were a contrast to the usual entertaining cinema that was popular around the world. Solanos and Getino in their manifesto (1969) stated “In the dependent countries, third cinema is a cinema of decolonization, which expresses the will to national liberation, anti-mythic, anti-racist, anti-bourgeois and popular” (Solano & Getino, 1969, pp.23). The Third Cinema was created as a direct alternative to First and Second Cinema. It is a common notion to consider Third Cinema as the cinema of the third world. However, this is not true. In the words of Solanas and Getino Third Cinema is described as the evolution of a cinema depicting the liberation in the third world countries. Third Cinema can said to have been developed as a reaction to the First and Second cinema rather than as a reaction to the First and Second Worlds. First Cinema can very well be produced in a developing country, an example being the Bollywood films that are produced in India. On the other hand, Third Cinema can include films produced in the first world countries. Suitable examples are the films made by Newsreel, the new US Leftist film body, the films produced during the British and the Japanese student movements, the cinegiornali made during the Italian student movement, the films belonging to the Etats Generaux du cinema Francais and so on. (The British Film Resource, n.d) The First Cinema embodied the large Hollywood scale of production of films. However, contrary to the name, this not only applied to the cinema produced in the first world countries. The First world cinema conceives a type of cinema which embodies a particular relationship between the cinematic medium and its audience. Here the cinema is viewed as a part of the spectacle. First cinema can very wel ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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