The plot of Turandot was represented in the story of Nizami - Azeri writer of the XII century, which was included in various European collections of Persian tales of the XVIII century. From there it was drawn out by the Italian playwright Carlo Gozzi for his Tales for the Theatre (1761)…
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Happy ending of the opera, as opposed to the play, was gloomed by sacrificial death of Liu. This touching image was created by Puccini, who rethought the original image of Gozzi’s heroine - a captive princess, energetic and insidious, secret rival of Turandot, who revealed the secret of the hero by trick and betrayed him. While Calaf and Turandot occur in Puccini's sources, Liu does not exist in either Gozzi’s or Schiller’s versions of the story. Adami and Simoni, the librettists for the opera, created her at Puccini's insistence and based her somewhat on Gozzi’s character Adelma, who is not very similar. (Digaetani 57) Puccini opposed two contrasting women images: cold, cruel, alien to human senses, princess Turandot and fragile, delicate slave girl Liu. In their spiritual fight the victory remains with Liu, who, with her death, proved the invincible power of love. The idea of ??creating an opera struck Puccini suddenly in November 1919. He took an active part in writing of the libretto, suggesting scenic and dramatic situations, their motives, to his librettists - prolific playwright Giuseppe Adami (1878-1946) and poet Renato Simoni (1875-1952). In 1921, he started to compose music. Feeling that it was his last work, the composer was in a hurry, nevertheless, the work on the opera stretched for several years - the librettists could not finish the last act until 1924. The final duet and finale of Turandot, after Puccini’s death, was completed by his pupil, composer Franco Alfano, who used Puccini’s drafts. Final acts were often very difficult for Puccini, and he often struggled to complete the final acts of his previous operas—a pattern which became tragic in the case of Turandot as his work on the third and final act of this opera was interrupted by terminal cancer. (Digaetani 31) The opera was premiered on April 25, 1926, in Milan, under the direction of Toscanini. When the last chords written by Puccini sounded, the conductor lowered his wand, stopped the orchestra and said, “Here the Maestro laid down his pen.” The curtain slowly fell; loud applause changed, in some minutes, to complete silence when performers and the audience were leaving the theater. Opera was played completely only the next day. Turandot is a drama of strong passions, unfolding against the colorful background, where oddly mixed are oriental splendor and bloody violence, reality and symbolism. Small lyrical ariosos, depicting the feelings of the main characters, are mixed with grandiose crowd scenes with powerful choruses and colorful orchestral episodes. Musical language of the opera is complex. It used many of the achievements of modern harmony and the vocals of the two main characters demand prominent voices. Maybe that is why the last opera by Puccini has not won wide popularity, as his previous works and early creations. In fairy, legendary times lived in Beijing the princess - Turandot. She could only belong to someone of the royal retinue, who could solve her three riddles. A candidate, who fails, will be, like all previous ones, put to death and his severed head will decorate the walls of the palace. The opera begins with a stage of preparation for execution of the Persian prince, who was unable to solve the puzzles. He ought to die with the rising of the moon and
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