Brazil’s development will attempt to lead sustainability for the next World Cup Table of Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Rationale for the study 1 1.3 Research aims and objectives 2 2. Literature review 2.1 Definition – events – sustainability 3 2.2 Link between event and sustainable management 4 2.3 Sustainability and standards 5 2.4 Research Design 6 3…
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Introduction 1.1 Background Sports, conferences and entertainment events have become major events in which environmental sustainability has emerged as an important theme (Ponsford, 2011). Every event claims to be environmentally conscious but the extent to which the authorities take steps to attain sustainability remains a debatable issue. The event organizers should be responsible for making the first step towards sustainability as they make a major impact on the environment (Hill, 1998). The first step involves preparing an action plan based on various factors that are set together to create an event. Brazil is due to host the World Cup in three years’ time and the infrastructure development that this event calls for, is tremendous. Brazil is expected to invest US$18.7bn for the 2014 FIFA World Cup which will fund 50 projects in 12 Brazilian host cities (Portal Brasil, 2010). The Minister for Sports claims that the development of Brazil to meet the demands of the event would greatly improve the country for the citizens. 1.2 Rationale for the study Hosting the World Cup requires the nation to be prepared in three main areas – the stadium, airport and transportation, and accommodation (De la Cerda, Fernandes, Huebner, Madanes & Suarez, 2011). Brazil is poised for growth since its foreign exchange policy is liberalized. The success of an event is not merely limited to whether the event was economically profitable. For most mega events economic benefits are overstated in order to justify the public expenditure by the federal government (Karadakis & Kaplanidou, 2010). It can cause tremendous debts as in the case of Montreal 1976 as it was burdened with capital and interest costs; as resources become scarce price inflation is likely for goods and services. The general population could also be burdened in terms of additional taxation to pay for the cost of hosting. Opportunity costs also arise when the government is unable to raise enough funds to host the event. A reasonable ratio between the profit generated and the costs incurred is based on short-term effects, and is derived from induced demand stimulus (Muller & Moesch, 2010). However, an event can be sustainable only if the added infrastructure continues to generate revenue and pay for its maintenance. Sustainability is not limited to environmental concerns but can expand to other regions as well. 1.3 Research aims and objectives With the aim to evaluate what steps the authorities have taken to ensure that development attempts will lead to sustainability for the next world cup, the objectives of the study are: To determine the likely damage to the environment and suggest measures for sustainable management To determine the likely impact of the World Cup 2014 on the GDP of Brazil and its population in the future generations To evaluate if Brazil is moving towards a sustainable event This study has great significance because event managers/organizers globally would make conscious attempts while planning events to ensure minimum damage to the environment, to the people, to the nation as a whole. 2. Literature review 2.1 Definition – events –
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