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Instrumentation and Control Systems - Essay Example

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Digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems have proven to be useful and beneficial in a wide range of applications including fossil-fueled power generation, electric power distribution, petroleum refining, petrochemical production, aerospace, and some nuclear power plant applications (e.g., core protection calculators, diesel generator load sequencers, a few digital reactor protection systems, and plant radiation monitoring systems)…
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Instrumentation and Control Systems
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"Instrumentation and Control Systems"

Download file to see previous pages Level sensors are used to detect liquid or powder levels, or interfaces between liquids. These level measurements can be either continuous or point values represented with various output options. Continuous level sensors are devices that measure level within a specified range and give output of a continuous reading of level. Point level sensors devices mark a specific level, generally used as high alarm or switch.
These sensors can be mounted on the top, bottom or side of the container holding the substance to be measured. Among the technologies for measuring level are air bubbler technology, capacitive or RF admittance, differential pressure, electrical conductivity or resistively, mechanical or magnetic floats, optical units, pressure membrane, radar or microwave, radio frequency, rotation paddle, ultrasonic or sonic and vibration or tuning fork technology. Analog outputs level sensors can be current or voltage signals. Also possible is a pulse or frequency. Another option is to have an alarm output or a change in state of switches. Computer signal outputs that are possible are usually serial or parallel. Level sensors can have displays that are analog, digital or video displays. Control for the devices can be analog with switches, dials and potentiometers; digital with menus, keypads and buttons; or controlled by a computer.
If we consider the typical application for sensor then there are four operation modes for measuring the sensor like level, temperature, pressure and flow. These are used to check the operation of sensor.
There is a complete system terminology from which the accuracy of data is more complex issue.
There are microprocessors which there are inter-conversion of analog to digital or vice versa are used for the fast and accurate data travel. But these are also affected from pressure to the current or current to pressure. These signals travel through the different communication medium like fiber optic or electrical medium etc.
There are many devices that are used to amplify the signal these devices usually called boosters. These use to maintain the signals in the voltage level and current for signal traveling.
Higher grade:
M3: Appropriate structure and approach has been used.
D2: Activities, projects or investigations have been planned, managed and organized for sensor measuring.
Process control system and controllers
Process control system and controllers typical include the examples of feed water and steam control systems, turbine generator controls, and the myriad of systems used to control the many circuit breakers, pumps, and valves throughout the plant. Plant Protection and Mitigation Systems Plant protection and mitigation systems are an additional, separate layer of systems that monitor the plant variables. If they detect that the plant monitoring and control systems have not kept the plant within a predefined set of conditions, they take action automatically to rapidly shutdown the plant and start any other needed systems to mitigate the detected problem and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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