The aircraft is a heavier than air machine and making it land and take off is facilitated by what is termed a Landing Gear mechanism. The landing gear in most aircraft consists of a tricycle configuration…
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Landing Gear and Avionics
Modern aircraft design incorporates the Landing gear system with the aircraft. This is an entire process of engineering and is referred to as Multi Disciplinary Optimization (MDO). Landing gear is a part of MDO and incorporates flight mechanics, stability, control and performance.
This is a part of Avionics, which allows an aircraft system to transfer analog or digital data with the help of a wireless, data line or any other medium. Aircraft systems components and connectors will also form part of this module. This is often referred to as Flight Management System (FMS). The FMS is very versatile and outputs for automatic control of the aircraft right from take off to the final approach and landing are provided. This data is displayed through electronic flight instruments as well as aircraft monitoring and navigation systems. The undercarriage and the landing gear mechanism form part of this FMS.
Flight Management System and ARINC 429
The key part of any FMS element is a Flight Management computer and a display unit. The entire information is displayed through a system of data buses. The word Bus is short form of Omnibus and in computer and digital systems it means a free data exchange between all components of a computer system.
One of the important bus systems in vogue for commercial aircraft is
ARINC 429. ARINC stands for Aeronautical Radio Inc. and the purpose of this organization is to standardize all equipment used in aircraft. This system makes use of a unidirectional bus standard called the Mark 33 Digital Information Transfer System (DITS). The ARINC 429 is a two wire differential bus. This connects a single transmitter to one or more receivers. The ARINC 429 will send or transmit data in packets of 32 bits at a speed of 100 kilobits per second. This will make the information appear in real time to the pilot, who really needs this information. This system is installed in most modern airliners like Boeing 737,747,757 and Airbus A 310, 320 and 330. A diagram of the ARINC 429 is given on the next page. The ARINC 429 Line Receiver converts the bipolar (Differential) data TTL/CMOS compatible outputs. Each receiver channel is lightening protected and operates independently. Line Receiver Diagram of ARINC 429 A Block Diagram ARINC 429 Transceiver is shown. It Provides an Interface between standard Avionics type serial digital data bus and a 16 bit wide digital data bus. A single transmitter with an 8X32 bit FIFO buffer facilitates the interface. Two independent receiver channels, and a host programmable control work together. The options are selected by them. A self test option is also available where data is internally wrapped around from the transmitter to the receivers. The ARINC 429 Parameters are tabulated below. . ARINC 429 Parameters Parameter High Speed Low Speed Bit Rate 100 K bps 12.5 K to 14.5 K Bit Time (Y) 10 us ± 5% 1/bit rate us ± 5% High Time (X) 5 us ± 5% Y/2us ± 5% Rise time 1.5 us ± 0.5us 10us ± 5us Fall time 1.5 us ± 0.5us 10us ± 5us ARINC, Data Format and Error ARINC messages generally consist of 32-bit data word. These data words are always 32 bits and consist of five field parity, SSM, Data, SDI and Label. ARINC 429 has two speeds of data transfer, a low speed (12-14.5 Kb/s ) for low critical applications and high speed bus for transferring large and critical data. Another point
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In building aircraft and in maintenance and overhaul, a minor nonconformity from design requirement, or the replacement of substandard materials, might cause in the loss of both lives and aircraft. The usage of inappropriate materials can expunge the best workmanship.
It can have 20 receivers at the most, with a 12 k resistance. b) ARINC 429 Databus Features Operational Specifications Simplex, broadcast bus connected in Star or Bus Drop configurations Transmission rate: low speed (12.5 to 14.5 kHz) and high speed (100 kHz) +/-1% Receiver is not allowed to respond in the same bus where a transmission has occurred LRU does not have an address but is programmed to listen for specific words Cabling consists of 78 ?
The paper further discusses and describes the functionality of various systems. Out of the five systems, the report details two of the systems. Subsequently, it covers the fundamental literature and functionality of three of the selected hypothetical avionics systems.
Generally, there are three major kinds of incidents. The most critical is the high-impact crash. Cases are mid-air collisions or explosions in mid-air. There are more or less no survivors. However there is still a need of massive search operations.
Low-impact crashes are sometimes survivable, although can have a disastrous outcome.
However, no one seems to succeed and traveling by air is a far-fetched dream and was regarded as a feat that is next to impossible.
However, "On Dec. 17, 1903, the Wright brothers produced the first manned, power-driven, heavier-than-air flying machine near Kitty Hawk, N.C.
It also serves its purpose to be used as a gunship, also for airborne assault, scientific search and other humanitarian aid purposes as well. The C-130 aircraft has been serving for years as one of the most flexible and versatile aircraft all around globe for not only military but for a range of other purposes.
The pilot circled Long Beach airport to rid the plane of excess fuel before landing at LAX. The landing was made safely and none of the approximately 146 passengers and crew on board was injured. The incident was investigated by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB).
Furthermore, this work will explain, as an operator, how one can think about designing a safety program element. This is going to be an equipment of skill for any operator to upgrade his/her expertise in the subprogram and process level.
'The problem of aging aircraft wiring received a great deal of attention in the late 1990s due to two tragic accidents: the July 1996 mid-air explosion of the Boeing 747 TWA Flight 800 and the crash of a Swissair MD-11 in Nova Scotia.
Generally, there are three major kinds of incidents. The most critical is the high-impact crash. Cases are mid-air collisions or explosions in mid-air. There are more or less no survivors. However there is still a need of
The gears normally rotate in the opposite direction since they are placed next to each other. They also change the force direction. If we want to obtain two gears that rotate in the same direction then we are required to include a third gear to the
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