Chapter 1 Overview Consumerism drives commerce globally, in different forms, but with the same purpose. Since forever, people have engaged in commerce to obtain needed goods and services and to increase political and socioeconomic advancement. In order for commerce to commence on a cross border and international level, Investment Banks provide services to accommodate high level financial transactions…
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Investment bank regulation differs in different nations. World trade is conducted within the balance of exchange rates. “Exchange rates play a vital role in a country's trade, which is critical to most free market economies in the world (Investopedia, 2010). The higher the value of Figure 1 Investment Banking the currency, the higher the cost of a country’s exports and the lower the cost of imports (Investopedia, 2010). Conversely, as a country’s currency decreases in value, the asking price for its exports also decreases. 1.1 Kingdom Holding Company; Saudi Arabia The financial history of Saudi Arabia is an interesting topic. Historians agree that the currency of the Mecca was adopted by Saudi Arabia by 1935. In 1926, the Saudi Hollandi Bank was formed as a part of the Netherlands Trading Company and acted as the money center for Saudi Arabia. In 1952, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency was formed and became the ‘treasury’ for Saudi Arabia. The halala appeared in in the late 1960s and developed as a denomination in ghirsh or riyal. The ABN is the holder for many Middle Eastern financial agencies including Riyadh, Jubail, Makkah, and Hofuf. In 1980, The Kingdom Holding Company (KHC) was created to obtain profits through investments in several different financial sectors. Headquartered in the Kingdom Centre of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, KHC is owned and managed by Prince Al-Waleed bin Tala. KHC is a publicly traded investment company listed on the Tadawul Stock Exchange. This paper is a study of four recent events of the Kingdom Holding Company as well as an analysis of the company’s financial data. According to the company website, the Kingdom Holding Company has a primary interest in ‘high performance global brands and strategic regional interests’ (KHC, 2013). The many financial investments of KHC include 360buy, Twitter, and Four Seasons. The four investment events to be analyzed in this study are: a) January 08, 2011 - The Signing of a contract that initiates the construction of the Jeddah Tower Project with Bin Laden Group for 4.6 billion Saudi Arabian Riyals b) September 29, 2011 - After several negotiations to acquire a part of Zain Groups with telecommunications company Batelco, the Kingdom Batelco Consortium announced that it will not proceed with making a binding offer to acquire Zain Groups 25% stake in Zain KSA. c) December 19, 2011 - HRH Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud, and Kingdom Holding Company announced a combined investment of $300 Million in Twitter for more than 3% share of the company. d) February 29, 2012 - Kingdom Holding Company announced the purchase of ‘Kingdom Oasis’ The purpose of the study is to find relationship between the events and abnormalities in the rates. Exchange rate values are a reflection of the mentality of the government, the investors, and the commonwealth of a country. Any indicators, variables or determinants of exchange rate movements can be linked to at least one, if not all three of these groups. Exchange rate volatility is expensive because fluctuations suggest instability. It suggests impending inflation or a rise in interest rates. Whether either of the events will actually happen does not matter. Just thinking they will is sufficient to stop investors from investing and consumers to stop spending. Inflation, interest rates
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