Download file to see previous pages...
The contemporary United States of America consists of several racial groups and disparities in the justice system have resulted in an overrepresentation of given ethnic groups. For instance, African- Americans constitute 13% of the general U S population, yet they constitute 28% of all arrests, 40% of the inmates in jails and prisons, and 42% of the population on death row. Hispanics too are over-represented in the criminal justice system. The white population which constitutes 67% of US population, accounts for the largest proportion of arrest cases, 70%, yet only 40% of this somewhat privileged grouped find their way into the correctional system and only 56% faces death penalty. Apparently, people of color are unequally treated in the criminal justice system, and this poses a serious challenge to the justice system.Therefore, this paper explores the boundaries of this inequality with respect to three races that historically have endured the greatest disproportionate minority contact in the American society.
In terms of arrests made, the rates at which African-Americans were arrested, within the defined cohort, remained comparatively high. For the period spanning 2003 and 2006, African Americans were 2.5 times arrested more than their White counterparts were. Moreover, the rates were even much higher for particular categories of offences. For example, the rate at which the Blacks were arrested for violent offenses and drug delinquency each approximated 3.5 times that rate at which Whites committing similar crimes were detained. Moreover, African-Americans were arrested six-times over the rate at which the whites were arrested for murder, robbery, and gambling and the arrests proceeded through unbearable over-presentation with an exception of alcohol-related delinquencies. In terms of court processing, Hispanics were admitted to prisons at a rate twice that of White admissions. African-Americans were more likely to be sent to prison and
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The United States criminal justice system has always been considered controversial for a variety of reasons. Racial discrimination is one of them. Other issues like the uneven implementation of the death penalty on different states also make the criminal justice system even more controversial.
American prison system. The American prison system History. While United States of America has the largest corrections system in the world, the history of its prisons and jails goes back to the British prison system. However, the corporal punishment was largely absent in the old correction system and “bridewells”, as prisons in UK were called during 18th century.
It’s an old school prison system based on an island where the most dangerous of inmates were kept. The history and different other aspects will be discussed. Also will be included, some escape attempts and prison reputation as a whole. This is the introductory area.
However, in most cases the relevant initiatives have failed to achieve the goals of their planners. As a result, inequalities in societies internationally have been increased. Racial disparity is just an aspect of the above phenomenon. Racial disparity, or else racial discrimination, is a term included two elements: ‘a) differential treatment on the basis of race that disadvantages a racial group and b) treatment on the basis of inadequately justified factors other than race that disadvantages a racial group’ (Blank, Dabady & Citro 2004, p.3).
The American jail and prison system portrays a racial disparity in the population of incarcerated men, with the incarceration rate of the African American on the rise (ASAALH, 2011). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics report of year 2009, approximately 40% of total jail and prison population comprises of non-Hispanic African Americans.
Drug abuse treatment involves the psychotherapeutic intervention that endeavors to reduce the dependence on psychoactive drugs. Drug abuse treatment within a prison system also deals with challenges associated with closed systems and resultant risky behaviors that may lead to contraction of HIV and other blood borne infections.
America is known as a country with the highest world percentage in rate of incarceration as per today followed by Russian and Cuba. Due to racial discrimination, African American males are mostly in jail with four percent as compared to those of Hispanic male with only 1.7 percent and those of white male with only 0.7 percent in United State according to the 2012 statistics.
More than half of all prisoners have mental health problem at least once in their life in jail. People with serious acute mental illness should be first send to the mental health services before entering the prison. The prisoners with very serious mental disease should be immediately transferred to a psychiatric care unit.