This paper "How Dogmatism, Rationalism, and Relativism Affect Ethical Thinking" will analyze the way several approaches that might be identified in it, namely dogmatism, rationalism, and relativism, are able to affect ethical thinking of a person…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Extract of sample "How Dogmatism, Rationalism, and Relativism Affect Ethical Thinking"
To begin with, one should give a definition of each of them. Dogmatism, as it can easily be understood from the name, stands for an approach according to which ethical thinking of a person is heavily influenced by dogma which is a predetermined set of an idea that one is not able to change in any way. In other words, dogmatism provides a person with answers to a wide range of questions and does not require one to critically examine each case. It is quite obvious that under these conditions a person can hardly experience any freedom in the course of ethical analysis of a situation. Contrary to the above-mentioned approach, rationalism urges a person to actively participate in the critical examination of the issues and claims that reason is the only viable way to verify the acquired knowledge. In other words, people are encouraged to use their minds to find answers to the questions with the help of their own reasoning. Thus, the biggest difference between the two approaches that were discussed so far might be exemplified in the following comparison: a person guided by dogmatism is similar to a train who follows the rails (dogma), while one who is guided by rationalism resembles a car which can go in multiple directions as long as the steering wheel (reasoning) is being turned. Finally, there is another approach that is different from the above mentioned to. It is called relativism and, as one can guess for the term, suggests that ethical thinking should be engaged rigid categories of right and wrong, but argues that the same action might be viewed in a different light according to circumstances. Continuing the comparison made in the previous paragraph a person who is guided by relativism travels on foot which means that one is able to visit territories which are out of reach of a vehicle and is not limited in one’s movements in any way since there is not seen to follow any rules. As one can easily see, dogmatism, rationalism and relativism present three different approaches to ethical thinking and feature three different degrees of freedom of a person. In the first case, ability to choose is limited by a predetermined dogma, in the second case, it is conditioned by reason which is defined by a person; finally, relativism puts the biggest amount of freedom in the hands of a person and allows one to make different judgment depending on a situation.
...to behave differently on account of their culture or personal opinions because of this absence of surety when it comes to moral reality. The main criticism on both of these theories is that the society will be in a chaos if every person in the society starts to practice his or her own version of morality (Rosaldo, Renato. 2011). Any idea about right or wrong cannot be left to individual (ethical subjectivism) or a group of individuals (cultural relativism) simply because of the lack of rational thought that is embedded in all societies. This criticism of subjectivity and relativism springs from the idea that people cannot be trusted for they may, and do, err in their...
...morally right in one culture might be considered wrong in another, an example being the situation of homosexuality. While in the western world, homosexuality is an accepted norm in society, in other parts of the world, especially in Africa and Middle East, one would find that this practice is frowned upon, and those found in the act tend to be severely punished. Therefore, when it comes to the concept of ethicalrelativism, the opinion of what is acceptable or wrong is not by what the world thinks, but by the society within which the situation develops.
One of the advantages of ethicalrelativism is the fact that a broad range of views concerning morals...
...roles. Morality is contrast to science and it does not seem so objective; thus one ought to think of morality as a matter of subjective opinion and this is what is basically termed as ethicalrelativism (MacKinnon 15).
However, a reasonable person cannot admit cultural ethicalrelativism because it is more reasonable to reject ethicalrelativism in favor of ethical objectivism (MacKinnon 82). Cultural ethicalrelativism includes right or wrong; thus the society should therefore provide valid arguments or reasons for not taking vaccines. It is the right of the...
...Ethical Objectivism and Kantian Ethics The nature of cultural understanding is strongly rooted in notions of ethics. Prominent researchers and anthropologists have advanced notions regarding ethnocentrism wherein morality must be judged within the specific cultural context. These notions of ethicalrelativism have received significant criticism from a variety of perspectives and ethical theorists. One considers one of the most prominent example the cultural actions of the Nazi’s in carrying out the Holocaust in World War II; few would condone such an action based on cultural relativism. Implementing Kantian...
...Relativism It is undeniable that one of the most highly valued virtues is forgiveness. Many societies and cultures across the world consider forgiveness among the virtues that hold the society together. People are expected to forgive and forget the wrong done to them by others. Most of the cultures that are primarily based on Christianity uphold forgiveness as one of the top virtues. This is not surprising considering the fact that Christianity is based on forgiveness of sin. Likewise, Christian societies and cultures built on Christian grounds become a forgiving society. However, this is quite different from cultures based on Islam. Although Islamic religion upholds forgiveness as a virtue, there is an appreciable deviation... from this...
Baby Theresa was born in Florida in the year 1992 with anencephaly. Her parents knew that she only had few days to live and wished to donate her organs like the liver, kidney, eyes, and heart to other needy children. However, Florida law prohibited organ transplant from live donors. At the time when baby Theresa died, her organs were in a bad state. In this context with Florida law prohibiting organ transplant from living donors, a number of professional ethicists adhered to traditional demands. The ethicists argued from different ethical theoretical viewpoints: Baby Theresa was being used as a way to meet other people’s ends; it is immoral to kill so that another live...
...a cognitive meeting.
13. What is the doctrine of knowledge by recollection, in Plato’s Meno?
This doctrine supports the intuition theory by stating that we already have prior knowledge which when we recall seems rational to us.
14. What are the three weaknesses of the doctrine of knowledge by recollection?
15. What is Noam Chomsky’s rationalist conception of the nature of language?
She argues that the knowledge gained through teaching is too scarce to explain how people know their language so well therefore, this language has to be innate born.
16. Why does Cottingham think Chomsky is wrong in thinking his account is rationalist?
Because his principles are neither innate...
...Ethicalrelativism and rights, equity and justice Lecturer: Ethicalrelativism, rights, equality and justice on the current Gaza conflict between Israel and Hamas
The ongoing Israel-Hamas conflict is part of the long-term Israel-Palestine conflict that has occasioned higher border tensions and extremist tides across Middle East. Israel and Hamas are in conflict over the Gaza Strip and Hamas has been firing rockets in to Israel while Israel responded by launching airstrikes and later a ground invasion. The current escalation of the conflict was triggered by abduction of three Israel teenagers from West Bank settlements, but Hamas denied any involvement (BBC...
...EthicalRelativism and its Beliefs
Ethicalrelativism has many beliefs, all of which believe that there is no universal and permanent way of determining if an act is ethical or not. Different cultures have their own beliefs of what is ethical (Geirsson, 2000). This theory argues that what is considered ethical depends on what is acceptable to a society. However, the society’s ethics evolves over time in order to fit with the current circumstances.
The theory of ethicalrelativism argues that there is no universal standard and that what is considered...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"How Dogmatism, Rationalism, and Relativism Affect Ethical Thinking"
with a personal 20% discount.