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prisoner feels that their opinions are heard, rules are neutral towards them and applied consistently, then they are likely to view authority as legitimate.
Research illustrates that the latter characteristics are not prevalent in several UK prison settings owing to a number of factors; one of them is the offender’s characteristics. No doubt exists about the progress that has been made in the United Kingdom concerning equality and diversity. This is partly because of the numerous research, advocacy and legislations that have been passed over the years. However, several cases of discrimination, unequal treatment, insensitivity to special needs as well as inconsistent application of rules are a harsh reality. These matters will be examined in detail in subsequent sections of the paper. They will be analysed against the diverse backgrounds of prison populations, such as ethnicity, religion, women, children, disability, LGBT and foreign nations.
Prisons have members from diverse religious groups. The majority represent the Christian faith, but even within this group different sects exist and can potentially lead to preferential treatment. Non-Christian groups are the minority in prison settings and include Muslims, Buddhist and Hindu followers. Women are one of the categories that lead to diversity in the prison population; they have special prisons for their gender, so it is relatively easy to study potential obstacles and inequalities in their group. The UK has a low proportion of women in prison, as estimates show that they are only 5% (Women in Prison, 2012). Likewise, children also represent a small portion of the prison population as the youth justice board states that only 1,543 children are in custody currently. Their numbers have been decreasing substantially over the years as seen through the decommissioning of some centres such ase Rivendell Unit at Cookham Wood.
Ethnicity is an umbrella term that encompasses the racial or cultural background to which
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Spatial Inequality around London and other UK Cities
The urban spatial segregation came to be recognised as a social and economic topic of importance after the Second World War.
Debate has been initiated in the context of European cities over the widespread deprivation and poverty related aspects of spatial inequality (McIntosh, 2002, p.
It follows that under conventional economics, the equilibrium wage rate of labour can be inferred as a function of differential productivities or differences in labour’s preferences between work and leisure given the disparities in wage rate across gender, race, ethnicity or localities.
However, there is a great amount of criticism for the idea of nationalism as not everyone agrees on what constitutes a nation. This particular debate came to the forefront during the 2010 Olympics which were held in Vancouver. In particular, the controversy centered around the discontent felt by the Indian tribes of Canada and the perceived inequalities experienced because of the Olympic games.
Arbitration is more like a court-based adjudication considering its adversarial nature2. What this means is that the parties involved in the dispute make presentations to prove that they are right and the other party is wrong. In the United Kingdom, arbitration is governed by the Arbitration Act of 1996.
Accordingly, the very first section of this research paper will focus upon the means by which inequality has impacted upon my own life and the way in which class distinction, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and ethnicity all work together to categorize and denote expected and stereotypical behaviors from groups of individuals.
(2) There are three major profit making corporations running the facilities, housing about 7 % of total prison population, which can be called 'private'. As the profit trend of these companies grow it is likely that over the next two or three decades the proportion of inmates would grow significantly larger compared to its current 7 %.
on is the hierarchy division of society, social stratification leads to social inequality in that certain groups stand high in social ranking, control scarce resources and receive special treatment. 1
The consequences of social inequality include difference in living standards,
A higher number shows more unequal distribution of income. According to (Cribb, 2013 ) the rise in the level of income inequality in industrialized nations lead by the host of English speaking nations such as the
For instance, people who are in the bottom 10% of the country’s population earn an income of approximately 8000 pounds while the top 10% earns ten times which is approximately 80000 pounds. The 10% holds 44% of the country’s wealth (Schuerkens 2010). This is a robust
The paper analyzes that wealth inequality is the unequal distribution of assets and saving among individuals in a country while income inequality is the extent of uneven distribution of income in the society creating a wide gap between the rich and the poor.
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