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Sex is a biological term used to distinguish between males and females based on the differences in their biological makeup. It is a valid, non-biased mode of classification unlike gender, which is a socially constructed term. In “Night to His Day: The Social Construction of Gender”, author Judith Lorber highlights the role of socialization in advancing the concept of gender. From an early age, various socialization agents such as parents, peers and teachers among others socialize children into their gender differentiated social roles. Male children learn that they are more superior to their female counterparts as they develop traits associated with leadership such as competitiveness, strength, toughness and control (Johnson, 1997 p.160). Conversely, female children learn how to care, empathize and submit to domineering males around them. Gender socialization advances discrimination of women by exalting men. As a result, inequality persists within different facets of society such as discrimination at the workplace, in educational institutions and in the political arena. In response to the oppressive masculine culture, feminism emerged advocating for equality of all sexes and an end to gender discrimination. The feminist movement continues to make great strides towards equalizing the playing field by empowering women intellectually, financially and socially. For example, single women no longer bear the burden of choosing to pursue their careers instead of raising a family. Despite milestones accomplished by feminists, deconstruction of gender remains an on-going process.
Stratification of groups based on socio-economic status (SES) is also another example of social construction. Hoyt et al (1999) distinguished between three social classes, which included upper, middle and lower classes. They used financial security as their criterion for distinguishing between the different classes. Such a
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History is replete with the examples of the division of all societies into three groups or categories at the eve of the advent of social change. First category consists of a very small proportion of the individuals, who strive diligently and work very hard to cause the change within their structure.
Human beings also attempt to get meaning of the world events as well as their position in the human society. Theorizing of social happening and events has been the order of the day for human beings. Theories are therefore statements that explain behaviors, actions and problems in any situation.
Structural-functional paradigm refers to the framework of building theories that view the society as a multifaceted system whose subsections work together in promoting stability and solidarity. This paradigm focuses on social issues through the means of a micro-level direction. This paradigm portrays culture as a multipart strategy.
Instead, the ostrich would not recognize an impending problem and tries to shun danger by refusing to see it.
It is axiomatic in behavior, bird or otherwise, that anything unknown inspires fear and confusion. Thus, people behave much like the ostriches in the face of life situations that seem hard to explain and cope with.
Although, the assertion that realities are socially constructed has gained considerable consensus from the academic community, the question of the agency that builds the socially constructed realities is not adequately resolved. The agency or authorship of language, culture, social groups and macro structures in the making of the social construction of reality has been highlighted by theorists from radically different platforms.
al are to worked out in the formation of a coherent theoretical groundwork for a study of individual childhood, yet the need to focus on the growth of the child’s body as a necessary part of the growing up process has been universally conceded. There are various ways in which
s experience some form of exclusion from the society which makes it difficult for the appropriate interventions from the medical and psychiatric fraternity to make an impact. Perhaps one of the most disturbing revelations that these professions must come to terms with is the