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Bureaucracy may be referred to as a professional organisation of officials who are organised in a pyramidal hierarchy and function under uniform impersonal rules and procedures. The classical form of bureaucracy has its origin in the German sociologist, Max Webber (1864-1920). According to Marx Webber, there are four foundations which define a bureaucratic entity: division of labour in that organisation; the assigning of individual positions and roles of an office to an individual member; authority structure; and the formation and execution of rules that define and regulate relations among organisational employees and stakeholders (Acker, 1990 & Runte & Mills, 2006).
Conversely, feminist approaches to management are interested in addressing gender discrimination that has been caused by sex segregation in an organisational set up, as a way of heightening management efficiency.
As has already been mentioned, specialisation of tasks and a highly developed division of labour features heavily in bureaucracies and bureaucratic approaches to social work. This is achieved by a clear and detailed definition of duties and responsibilities that are due to every office. The allocation of limited number of tasks to a specific office functions according to the principle of fixed jurisdictional areas which are determined by administrative regulations (Morten and Jarle, 2009).
The case above is evident among leading nongovernmental organisations [NGOs] such as the Mercy Community Services, the Australian Human Rights Commission and the Australian Human Rights Commission. In all these organisations, there are duties that are specific to every officer. The same is applicable to governmental organisations such as the Australian Federal Police, the Australian Institute of Marine Science and the Australian Law Reform Commission. In all these aforementioned NGOs and governmental organisations, there are duties that are office-specific so that all offices are unitarily accountable
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Women encounter favoritism and uneven treatment in matters of fundamental right to provisions, health care, knowledge, service, and power over prolific resources, judgment making and living not owing to their genetic disparities or sex.
It is a deterministic theory, in that it suggests that humans develop along lines that are not necessarily logical or rational. Additionally, there are several different terms that refer to life stages present in Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory, although these have definitely evolved.
"Oppres'd with two weak evils, age and hunger" was Shakespeare's formulation of the more hostile effects of nature on humans (As You Like It, act 2, scene 7, line 132). Studies in the area of natural sciences successfully analyze the whole kaleidoscope of these effects.
This type of structure is assumed to exist in the private sector but not in the public sector. The implication here is that whereas the one is inherently capable of adopting such management paradigms as would facilitate the realisation of an organisation's untapped potentials, the other is not.
While functionalism provides a consensus perspective, Marxism and feminism provide a conflict perspective. Each of the perspectives focuses on the family as central to society, and each differently interprets the relationship between social change and the family (Bond,