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and punishment has been viewed as a responding means towards declining crime rates, the initiative has left behind many social, economic and cultural expenses thus failing in its role of reducing crime (Chiricos & Delone, 1999).Over the years, several factors including political, social and economic factors have had remaking facet on the social life without interest being in the justice and crime patterns. In addition, most of the theories related to criminology have been centered on individual crime etiology causation or on failures in institutions especially the local-level ones with the best example being the prisons.
The failures addressed in these theories include the little attention given to the sociological forces (Garland, 2000). A number of authors have come up with several methodological and theoretical approaches with an aim of capturing the structural changes effects on justice and crime patterns. These authors and thinkers suggest theories that are structural accumulative providing models that are useful in the incorporation of existing macro-social changes in criminology. To achieve, the writers and thinkers have come up with different arguments which the paper is going to look at such as labor regime changes and balance shifts of control strategies effects in shaping the crime patterns and problems (Philips, 2002).
Russell’s theory was aimed at explaining the offending patterns of black people in the US who have over the years been convicted, disproportionally arrested and incarcerated. In her argument, she believed that the criminology has to move beyond the commonly witnesses’ abundant description and analysis of the existing relationship between official offending and race so as to come up with critical theoretical approach that will go outside the framework of examining of the current criminological theories. According to Russell, a black criminology that is subfield would include theoretical perspectives formed at both the macro and micro
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Increase in population escalates economic disparity due to strained resources (Reisig & Pratt, 2004). This causes a form of social aggressiveness that leads to crime. Legal factors are as a result of policy with a country or region. Actions considered “normal” in the past are now illegal; for instance, the smoking and possession of marijuana in some American states is illegal in contrast with the Red Indian period (Shefer & Liebling, 2008).
(2) There are three major profit making corporations running the facilities, housing about 7 % of total prison population, which can be called 'private'. As the profit trend of these companies grow it is likely that over the next two or three decades the proportion of inmates would grow significantly larger compared to its current 7 %.
This totalistic character of a prison as defined by Goffman enforces staying in group performing rigidly scheduled activities all intended to serve the purpose for which the prison is set up. Prisonization (Clemmer) is the process of adaptation by the inmates by way of modification of their behaviors to conform to this totalistic world far removed in character from home, family and society at large.
And therefore there is an effective solution to this problem of health. But generally the interference of health care does not just relate to treatment. They also comprise of other aspects related to health like prevention, diagnosis, continuing care, rehabilitation and palliative care.
and the modernization that occurs in societies and the determination of the universal social or even cultural mechanisms that hastens the process of changing society. (Dentler, 2002, p. 2).
In terms of culture, it is the study of the culture that signifies this group cultural
Prisons are also thought to be the training center of crime by the public who also believe that the time spent in prisons makes the prisoners more hard core criminals than ever (The role and function of prison 2000). However, another aspect is that prisons are also
The sanctions entailed ducking stool, whipping, the pillory, branding as well as stocks. During that period, the sentence for most offenses was death. At that time, prison was regarded as a place where individuals were held prior to their trials or when
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