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American Welfare - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Course Date: 1. Describe the three main families of explanations for the welfare state development. American Welfare Welfare describes providing a minimal level of safety and social sustenance to all citizens also known as public aid. A welfare state explains the concept of government where the state plays an important part in fortification and advancement of economic and social safety of its citizens (University 36-109)…
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American Welfare
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American Welfare

Download file to see previous pages... a) Political culture Welfare culture explains behavioral consequences through the provision of poverty relief to those who earn low income. After the postwar period, the prevailing clarification for distinct features of the American welfare state reposed on the impact of the political culture of the American public rule (University 36-109). In this view, there are cultures who are comfortable with allocating responsibilities regarding the needs of social welfare to the central political authorities while others prefer families, local community organizations or the market to maintain switch. Public- opinion surveying indicates that political cultures differ among Western democracies. These variations relate in a systematic manner to the modifications in how governments deal with the financial insecurity in their states(Morgan and Campbell 58-308). The societies having more antistatist, individualistic cultures, like the United States have less active governments thus leave far more to the market, the family and the voluntary associations. While culture,ideology and values cannot be overlooked, there are enough reasons to doubt their descriptive purchase. b) Political institutions Scholars suggest that government and party institutions are important factors that affect social policy. State centered, institutionalist and polity centered approaches advocate that there is special attention to structural properties of states and policy legacies which describes the functions of the government. This approach suggests that social policy impassively reflected some previously recognized balance of power in the midst the competing interests. Some scholars suggest that some state actors initiated reforms in advance and in opposition to societal pressures (Morgan and Campbell 58-308). The state actors showed how political institutions and the public policies shapes the group demands and the group identities thus influencing the capability of different interests using power to their advantage. There are some principles that explain the shaping of a welfare development state. The principle explains that, theoretically, logical explanation should look at how the social interests chain with the political institutions to change the environment where the reformers act (Morgan and Campbell 58-308). c) Social actors In many cases welfare and culture state policies connected through the actual or the former activities of the social actors. Through their ideas, the social actors relate to the level of the welfare culture. The social actors include the collective actors, who comprises of political parties, social movements and NGOs (Alber 355-362). The primary actors refers to the potential groups of the actors having similar social positions do not express themselves as collective actors because they lack the resources (Alber 355-362). The social actors may engage in negotiation and conflict processes on the leading cultural values in societies. Welfare state strategies are founded on concepts on one hand and on the interests of the social actors on the other. The opportunities of the social actors to impact the welfare state policies differ in a large way depending on the resources they are able to mobilize. The conditions for social change are appropriate when the level of integration in cultural or the social ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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