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Name Instructor Class December 2, 2013 Chapter 14, “The “Search for the ‘Criminal Man’ Revisited” In Chapter 14, the “Search for the ‘Criminal Man’ Revisited, Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, Lilly, Cullen, and Ball (2011) discussed biosocial theories…
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Download file to see previous pages 351). E.O. Wilson revived interest in biology in 1975 with his book, Sociobiology, which seeks to interpret new findings in the social and behavioral sciences through biology’s framework (Lilly et al. 352). Later on, several scholars were trying to find a way of using biology without being reductionist , while emphasizing the role of neurological studies on the study of the human criminal brain (Lilly et al. 353). When the Human Genome Project was completed in 2005, leading biologists believed that it could provide answers regarding the criminal mind (Lilly et al. 353). Lilly et al. focused on the biosocial approaches of evolutionary psychology, neuroscience, and genetics for Chapter 14. For evolutionary psychology, “cheater theory” asserts that some males develop “alternative reproductive strategies” that compel them to rape women, so that they can propagate their genes (Lilly et al. 355). Cheaters or “cads” also have an attitude of disregarding the law (Lilly et al. 355). The r/K theory, or “differential K theory,” is similar to cheater theory in terms of defining criminality as part of the reproductive needs of men, where the “r strategy” refers to producing as many possible offspring without caring for them, while the “K strategy” pertains to slower reproduction, as long as enough time is provided for the offspring (Lilly et al. 355). ...
356). “Alternative adaptation theory” asserts that some people inherit the propensity to practice antisocial behavior, where several people are more motivated by mating than parenting drives (Lilly et al. 356). “Evolutionary expropriative theory” affirms the assumption of alternative adaptation theory that every person has an equal chance of developing antisocial behavior, while the difference is, some do this through productive strategies, while others do it by using expropriate resources that exploit others (Lilly et al. 356). Lilly et al. assessed that these evolutionary psychology theories are more “biosocial” than biological” because they emphasize the role of the environment in affecting the genetic expression of criminality (356). They agreed that, though evolutionary theories are “tautological,” they are important for the “species” level (Lilly et al. 356). In addition, Darwin was also concerned of the process of “natural selection,” where, although all people might have the propensity to do bad things, they are also learning positive traits that prevent the expression of antisocial behaviors (Lilly et al. 357). The next sets of theories are the neurological and biochemical theories. Biosocial theories acknowledge that learning is important, but learning can occur differently for people because of existing neurological or biochemical differences, and how the environment affects these differences is called “polymorphisms” (Lilly et al. 358). Mednick’s biosocial theory in 1977 asserted that some high-risk individuals have inherited an autonomic nervous system (ANS) that is not quite sensitive to environmental stimuli, and that slow arousal makes it hard for them to ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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