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Race and Ethinticity - Essay Example

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A look into human history proves that race is a social construct, not a biological or anthropological one. While the term ‘race’ often categorizes people based on their physical appearance, ‘ethnicity’ tends to categorize people based on their culture…
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Race and Ethinticity
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Download file to see previous pages By 1930, the main races were Whites, Blacks, Mulatto, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu and Korean. According to reports, in the present day American society, nearly 63% of the population is Whites and 16.90% is Hispanics. The remaining constitutes 13.10% Africans, 5.10 % Asians and 1.20 % Native Americans. (Dr. Armstead) In the case of Florida, one can see that as of 2012, whites enjoy no considerable majority in the population. According to reports, just 57% is whites and 23% is Hispanics and Latinos. The remaining is constituted by African Americans, Asians, and various other groups. It becomes vey evident from the data that Miami is a majority minority city. This is so because whites constitute only 16.3% of the total population there. In the population, majority is constituted by Hispanics and Latinos. They make up 64.3% of the total population. (United States’ Census Bureau) Admittedly, this disadvantageous situation of the minority is visible throughout the U.S. To illustrate, while the richest 1% of the United States population consists of 91.2% whites, the percentage of Asians is 0.20 and that of Hispanics is 1.6. Surprisingly, the representation of Native Americans and African Americans is nil. A very similar situation is seen in the case of discipline in high schools, which includes suspension or expulsion. While Native Americans and African Americans constitute more than two thirds of the total punished students, white representation is less than 15%. (Dr. Armstead) This socially disadvantageous situation of the ethnic minorities can also be seen in infant mortality rates. While about 15% of the mortality occurs in Blacks and about 10% in Native Americans, the percentage is far less in Whites and Hispanics. Moreover, one can see that health problems like asthma and lead poisoning are much higher in blacks than whites. When one looks into the school readiness of various groups, it is seen that whites come first at 70% and Native Americans score least at 35%. Similarly, while more than 80% of the white kindergarten students successfully complete graduation, Native Americans come last with 45%. (Dr. Armstead) It is pointed out rightly in “Race Matters” that African Americans face serious levels of inequality within the criminal justice system of the U.S. The work claims that African Americans are more likely to be racially profiled by the sleuths and have gang loitering laws imposed on them. In addition, the report finds that Latinos and African Americans are more likely to get longer and harder sentences and poor plea bargaining. (Race Matters 13) Evidently, there are various factors resulting in continued inequality. In the case of healthcare, it is claimed by ‘Race Matters’ that minorities often do not have proper access to available resources. The first reason is a mistrust for the government systems and the second main reason is language barriers. In addition, some people remain ignorant about various supports and services. Another main reason is the poor economic status of the minorities. The study points out that poor economic situation is linked to poor living standards and higher exposure to polluted air and water and higher exposure to lead hazards and dust molecules. Thirdly, there is a lack of culturally competent and color blind programs to accommodate the minorities. (Race Matters 3) In the field of education, the existing racial segregation acts as a hindrance. The students who enroll in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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