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Return to Aztlan - Essay Example

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Name: Instructor: Date: Return to Aztlan The term Social capital is defined in different ways, depending on the discipline of concern. In sociology, Social capital is a broad concept that refers to the vast network of social connections existing between individuals, based on their shared behavioral norms and values…
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Download file to see previous pages Examples of social networks include neighborhood associations, sports clubs, and cooperatives. In such social capitals, the denser the network, the more its members concentrate on mutual benefit. The productivity of social capital comes about from the fact that the individuals in the network can exchange ideas or equipment that benefit both of them. For instance, farmers in the social capital can trade farming tools amongst themselves, thus reducing capital and the time needed for the work to be done (Massey et. al., 1999: 64). Social capital therefore aims at decreasing cost of utility and increasing output. Social capital is also about the value of social networks; bonding of similar people and bridging between diverse ones. Social capital also represents an important conceptual innovation for inter and Trans integration especially between sociology and economics. There has been exponential growth in references to social capital. According to economists, the explanation to where social capital spontaneously comes from is an iterated Prisoners Dilemma games also known as PD. If a cooperative outcome is, needed defection as it provides equilibrium for both players. However a tit- for- tat strategy can lead both players to a cooperative outcome. This relates to playing defection for defection. In a non- game theory, individuals interact with each or over time and develop honesty and reliability. In commercial societies, market interactions leads to development of social virtues such as honesty, industriousness, and prudence (Charest, 2007: 10). The major problem is that social capital is produced by sources of authority for irrational reasons in order to expect obedience by laying down the norms. Not only do the norms come about through decentralized bargaining, but they are also transmitted from one generation to another through a process of socialization that involves more habit than reason and can persist for long periods. Major religion and cultural systems such as Confucianism are examples of such authorities. Social behavior based on rational choice for religious and cultural behavior has economical explanations. An example is the ban on cow eating to protect the cows, as they were resources for other uses such as ploughing and dairy farming. Apart from religion, shared historical experience can shape informal norms to produce social capital. An example is the conflict between workers, managers and the state in Germany and Japan causing labor unrest. The dysfunctions and institutions played a critical role in allowing the two societies to return to growth after the war and constituted a form of social capital. Social capital through social networks reinforces the movement of people across international boundaries. As discussed above, social capital comprises of bonds and links at personal, family, and work levels. When communities go to specific areas in different societies to work, they form social ties that link them, both migrants and non-migrants. The expansion of these ties foster migration of individuals within the international migration systems. With time, the migrants form a social network or a community that broadens with more migrants joining. As the migrant networks expand and grow stronger, the cost of migration is greatly reduced (Massey et. al., 1999: 64). These networks work independent and in spite of government policies. However, sometimes they gain support from the immigration ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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