Social stratification is central in studying any issues related to sociology.Systems of inequality or social controls determine and shape how the society operates.Race,class, gender,age,economics,politics and other social forces…
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Social stratification is central in studying any issues related to sociology. Systems of inequality or social controls determine and shape how the society operates. Race, class, gender, age, economics, politics and other social forces-those cornerstones of stratification- determine access to social opportunity and consequently bring about inequalities in society. They also act as foundations of identity thus shaping opinions and perceptions of individuals. Social inequalities continue reproducing themselves thus making a group of people subordinate to others. These inferior groups get stigmatized and eventually come to accept their situation. Every society has its norms that hold the society together and failure to obey these norms is considered abnormal or deviant. Deviance is thus defined by Goode and Ben-Yehuda (2009) as “violation of a society’s or a group’s norms and the individuals who commit such acts are “deviants.” Absolutists would argue that deviance is intrinsic since we all know what is right and wrong. It is ones will to do evil or what is wrong. However, moral relativists argue that deviance is a social construction thus morality is relative. It comprises of those attributes, behaviors and conditions labeled deviant and these vary over time and place. If you say one is ‘deviant’, the question that then comes into the mind is: “by whose standards?” “Who is labeled deviant and who has the power to create and apply the labels?” ...
According to Goode and Ben-Yehuda (2009 p. 115) deviance is meaningless without reference to a specific relevant audience. As such, whenever it is said that one is deviant, the next question to ask ourselves is; deviant to whom? This view is supported by Curra (2011) who argues that there are no inherent qualities to separate deviance from non-deviance. No word like deviant exists unless there is an audience to evaluate ones behavior and label it as deviant. This audience in most cases is the society in which a person resides in. Deviant behavior according to the labeling theory therefore, refers to any behavior that is contrary to dominant norms of society (Curra, 2011). In other words, deviance is socially constructed and varies from society to society, group to group, different time periods and social contexts. The audience in this case must observe behavior in society and evaluate whether it conforms to the norms of the society and if not, it is labeled deviant. For example, although murder is considered deviant in all societies, some form of murder is considered heroic and not a crime depending on the circumstances. If the audience views an individual committing murder to protect the society from intruders that may be regarded as a heroic act that does not deserve condemnation. Sociologists do not believe that there is an act considered as absolute evil or which is universal. The absolute view holds that “if an act is wrong, it is wrong all the time regardless of place, time and social context” (Goode & Ben-Yehuda, 2009 p. 110). For example, if they say abortion is murder the proposition holds at all times. This view is contrary to sociologist’s view. For them, deviance is relative and depends on who has the power and control to design the
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Is Old Age Natural or is it Socially Constructed?
As stated by Job (1981: p.13), old age points at people who are sixty five years and over. It is considered the final stage in the life of a person associated with a decrease in both physical and mental features, as well as a decline in the social commitments such participation in sports among others.
This will be done through reference to extensive literature established in the subject II.1. Organization and Society: Drawing the Parallels After studying the patterns of cultural evolution, the writer of this paper is inclined towards the belief that there is a significant amount of similarity in the manner in which culture is manifested in business organisations and in society in general (Rollinson et al, 1998; Morgan, 1998).
It is for this reason that organizations have been often characterized as socially constructed phenomena. The relationship between organizations and society is critically analyzed in this paper. It is proved that organizations can be characterized as socially constructed phenomena but the arguments on which such descriptions can be based may be differentiated across organizations operating in markets with different social and ethical rules, an issue discussed below.
As the paper stresses mental health problems are widespread and encompass mental ill health that can be experienced momentarily owing to the stresses of life. Mental illnesses are of diverse types and degrees of severity. Some of the key mental illnesses include eating disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and borderline personality disorder.
Like Leslie, another young boy, Donnie, was similarly drugged, kidnapped and pushed into such explotative measures of sexual trafficking. These two young kids were forced to believe that their parents did not need them any longer. Their normal lives had vanished when their innocence was taken advantage of.
In my assignment, the classic folkways definition of deviance is appropriate. It argues that when we carry out our normal day to day activities based on custom, tradition and etiquette, which include fashion norms, table manners and physical eye contact among many others.
Genetics suggests that human beings are 99.9% identical (Fullwiley, 2008). The remaining small percentage accounts for the general phenotype observed physically that is used to group people into races. Some of these variations include, skin pigment, eye color, hair color, height among many other small variations observed (Coates, 2013).
This can come about in different ways. For instance, they can manipulate the perception of the public and descriptions of what sets up crime and deviance, and deviants or non-deviants. Additionally, they can influence the crime level in a society by intensifying it, thus fastening it.
Enuma Elish ('When on high') is the Babylonian myth of creation, which was composed approximately in 1000 BC. In brief, the myth explains the creation of world and depicts two planetary explosions and their consequences to the earth. When the celestial body of a constellation named Apsu-Tiamat was destroyed, gods named Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, Kishar, Anu and Ea arose from it.