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How is under-determination (UD) handled in the scientific article - Essay Example

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no Date The role of marijuana smoking in elevating the risk of lung cancer Thesis Under-determination refers to a scenario in which the evidence supplied to support a certain belief, is insufficient to warrant a conviction. Fundamentally, this means that the available data is insufficient to permit a person to make a decision between two rival theories…
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How is under-determination (UD) handled in the scientific article

Download file to see previous pages... As once stated, a theory can only be considered as evidence if it is tested in groups, and not in isolation. Basically, under-determination is a result of two rival theories, in which neither has enough evidence to out-do the other. It, therefore, follows that the lack of certainty about a phenomenon could lead to people believing various theories, so long as these theories have evidence. In the end, people are left with questionable conclusions about the said phenomenon. In addition, strong under-determination holds that if two theories have the same observable consequence, then a person cannot distinguish between the two. Introduction According to Callaghan, Allebeck & Sidorchuk , cannabis, popularly known as marijuana,is listed as the most widely used illegal drug in the world today (1811). Marijuana, like tobacco contains a lot of carcinogens which public health experts say increase the risk of contracting cancer. Additionally, health experts point out that the kind of smoke produced by marijuana is more toxic since it tends tocondense and mutate, thus making its effects more lethal than those of tobacco. To prove that there exists a direct link between marijuana smoking and elevated risk of lung cancer, a study was conducted between 1969 and 2009 (Callaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk 1812). In this study, 49, 321 Swedish young males, between 18-20 years, were observed for forty years to determine whether marijuana does really cause lung cancer (Callaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk 1812). The results of the study would shed light on whether smoking of marijuana increases the chances of contracting cancer, or it is just a belief. Accordingly, the results are containedin an article written by Callaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk which draws the conclusion that marijuana smoking might increase the chances of contacting lung cancer. InCallaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk’s article on the correlation between smoking marijuana and contracting lung cancer, however, under-determination is evident (1811). Some of the results of the study appear to suggest that there is a positive correlation between smoking marijuana and increased chances of contracting lung cancer; while other results tend to show that there the evidence presented is not enough to warrant such a conclusion. However, the under-determination contained in this article is not unusual considering that several other studies have failed in coming up with a completely convincing conclusion. As Callaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk write, there have been numerous studies on the association between marijuana smoking and lung cancer development, although some studies found no association while others have established a link (1812). Callaghan, Allebeck &Sidorchuk state that the concern on whether marijuana smoking increases the risk of lung cancer has several lines of evidence (1811). One of the theories used as evidence purports that since tobacco smoking is the chief cause of lung cancer and sincemarijuana contains the same carcinogens as tobacco; the latter could also be a major cause of lung cancer. However, there is no evidence in the article to support these claims and as such, this just remains a hypothesis that needs strong empirical evidence. The fact that two items have similar content does not mean that they deliver the same results, unless such a claim is supported by very strong ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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