Causes of Development and Underdevelopment Author Institution Causes of Development and Underdevelopment Over time, there has been an interest in improving the living conditions of people living in developing countries. This accompanies a growing concern about the widening gap between the developed countries and the less developed countries…
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The paper will comment on the strength of these views and close with my position on the explanation of the causes of development and underdevelopment. Modernization theories propose that a country’s underdevelopment is a function of factors internal to the country. These factors include illiteracy, traditional attitude of population, traditional agrarian system of production, low division of labor and poor infrastructure. Development comes with a change in these internal factors. Modernization theories conceptualize development along a continuum. These theories perceive the degree of a country’s underdevelopment as being its level of backwardness relative to the countries ahead of it. Modernization defines development in terms of modernization of means of production and increased know how that is supposed to impact the level of per capita income positively (Lie & Brym, 2006). Dualism theories separate a country’s economic and social elements. Economic dualism relates the modern sector with the traditional sector. Modern sector produces in large scale, is capital intensive and have clearly defined division of labor. Traditional sector, on the other hand, produces largely for subsistence, is labor intensive, have a reduced capital intensity and poor division of labor. ...
Unbalanced growth theory emphasizes underdevelopment is characterized by the poor entrepreneurial abilities. It prescribes that investment should be channeled to the imbalanced projects proportionately so that entrepreneurial abilities are not weighed down and in the end they invite additional investments. The theory of stages of growth proposes that economic development happens in five stages. While, at the traditional society stage, majority of the population are laborers; power is in the hands of a few persons. The transitional stage avails the conditions required to bring radical change and the idea of economic development are thought of as coming from without the society. Take off stage is marked by increased investment in per capita output (Szostak, 2009). Drive to maturity stage sets in when the growth spreads to most of the sectors and modern technology is greatly embraced. Stage of high mass consumption is the last and is marked by attainment of considerable national income, formulation of clearly spelt out economic policy and well pronounced private consumption. Big-push theory proposes that investments need to have a considerably high minimum so as to give out better benefits for external economies. The emphasis here is on infrastructure and industry development. The theory of development poles emphasizes the indispensable role of regional development to the development in the larger society. Circular causation theory underpins the cumulation of factors in both negative or positive cycles and the subsequent impact on development. The theory opposes development poles theory. Social psychological theories emphasize the role of individual and group values and motivations
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(“Causes of Development and Underdevelopment Essay”, n.d.)
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(Causes of Development and Underdevelopment Essay)
“Causes of Development and Underdevelopment Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1482378-causes-of-development-and-underdevelopmenty.
Many centuries of domination and exploitation followed, until the end of the nineteenth century when the former colonies started to gain their independence, partly through revolt and resistance, and partly because the European powers were exhausted and both militarily and economically, and severely weakened after two World Wars.
This paper discusses the relationship between social, economic and political underdevelopment in Africa. The paper relates the main social issues of education and colonization, in its social perspective, to underdevelopment. The paper discusses the relationship of the key economic issue of corruption with political underdevelopment in Africa.
This made the countries start producing agricultural products for economic instead of domestic purpose. Development is the process of satisfying the people’s basic needs. The political and economic influence of the advanced nations increases the poverty level by increasing the dependence of the developing world (Alavi & Shanin 1982, p 12).
Whereas the average per capita income in the industrialized world stands at over $27,000, in Africa the figure is just over $500. The implication is not just that the developed countries are, on the average, 51 times richer than Africa but that at a modest GDP growth rate of 3%, a figure which most African countries have been unable to attain, it would take Africa 120 years to arrive at the current developmental status of the industrialized countries (Obadina, 2008).
While theorists have tended towards the arguing of a single cause, a critical analysis of the variant explanations forwarded establishes that underdevelopment, as in persistent and chronic underdevelopment, is a consequence of a multitude of factors and not just one.
On the other hand, any planning approach which depends rather exclusively on fiscal or pure economic policies from the top eventually finds itself mired in a cycle of underdevelopment, or gross economic growth without equitable human development.
The effects of crime are also described although not in depth. The report concludes by recommending different approaches to solving the crime such as preventive aimed at addressing the root causes as well as the call for more research on the issue.
In the US alone, it is approximated that, over 300,000 deaths per yearly are attributable to crime.
The paper will first make an attempt to find out how war hampers development of a country, and then it will also try to find out whether war can only produce negative impact on development or in some cases it is also capable of enhancing