Social movements - Essay Example

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The Environmental Justice Movement Name Institution Course The Environmental Justice Movement The Environmental Justice Movement is one of the various types of social movements. A social movement refers to a group of individuals or organization with a common ideology…
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Download file to see previous pages Social movements have led to many political and social changes globally. The Environmental Justice Movement has the main agenda of challenging the unfair distribution of hazardous, toxic, and dangerous waste product. The waste facilities mostly had their location in areas whose occupants are the low-income communities, the colored people, and the minority communities. The Adherents for the movement include, Latinos, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, African Americans, and Asians. The formation of this movement was in the year 1982, but such activities are believed to have started much earlier with people like Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King in the 1960s. The environment justice movement was officially started in the year 1982 after the decision by the government to have a waste landfill in the Warren County, North Carolina. The town in question was Shocco Township, which was supposed to host 30, 000 cubic yards of a hazardous waste known as polychlorinated biphenyl. About 70% of the occupants of this town were non-white with more than 20% of them having incomes of below the poverty level. In 1987, there were two studies proving that there was environmental racism in the United States of America (Sandler & Pezzullo, 2007). These two reports increased the urge of the movement members to fight for environmental justice. The first National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit took place in the year 1991. The summit attendees were over 650 national and grassroots leaders representing over 300 environmental groups. In October 2002, there was the second National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit. The strength of The Environmental Justice Movement is because of the close partnership between community-based organizations and university researchers. This is because Local groups have knowledge of neighborhood environmental issues while the university researchers have contributed by bringing their analytical, scientific, and legal expertise (Sandler & Pezzullo, 2007). The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act was another relevant development with relation to the movement. The act was passed in the year 1986. Its main aim was to inform citizens on the dangers of chemical emergencies that could arise from nearby facilities nearby facilities. Despite these policy changes, criticism to the federal government by members of The Environmental Justice Movement did not decrease as the government was doing very little about this act. In terms of human resources, The Environmental Justice Movement highly depends on their volunteer members and their affiliated university groups. With this, they have services ranging from intellectual to manual services (Goodwin & Jasper, 2009). They mainly get their funding from the constituent environmental organizations. These organizations include the United Church of Christ’s Commission for Racial Justice, The United Methodist Church’s Department of Environmental Justice, the National Council of Church’s Eco-Justice Working Group, Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice and many others. The philanthropy of these organizations avails continuous fund for the environmental justice movement. This satisfies the resources mobilization theory of social movements that sates that all social movement requires various resources for their operations. In 1991, they earned about some US dollars from the legal suit involving ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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