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However, these social ideas are so prevalent that we seldom care for their scientific and political importance. Is a white colored and blue eyed person any better than black colored and curly haired person? Is it more than just different variety of genes? Does commonly held idea of beauty and superiority makes a certain group rule and exploit every other group? The answer in certainly no, however, the idea of race and ethnicity is still prevalent in modern world. This paper tries to explore that in what ways, if at all, 'race' and 'ethnicity' still matters.
Race and ethnicity are social constructs that refer to particular social group sharing cultural heritage and ancestry devised by oppressive system of race relations. These constructs are justified by ideology where one group takes advantage over other through domination and defines other groups and itself through that supremacy and possession of some selective and arbitrary physical attributes, such as, skin color(Krieger,2000,36).Racism refers to individual or institutional practices which generate and reinforce the oppressive systems of racial differences and relations (Krieger, 2000, 36).Ethnicity is a social construct that is originally devised to discriminate between the "innately" different groups that allegedly classified as an overall same race (Hobsbawm cited in Krieger, 2002)....
However, her theory holds that ethnicity is the perception of a group about itself that ensures the sense of identity and belonging, on the other hand, perceptions associated with race are created and reinforced by those who are outside of that particular group, mostly more dominant than the group under consideration. Most of the perceptions and practices associated with race are negative and at odds with their own perception about their group. A recent example is that some Americans' tend to perceive Muslims as terrorists or extremists. Therefore, any perception that Muslims hold as true and beautiful about being Muslim is drowned by this practice of racism (Markus cited in DeAngelis, 2008).Another example is media's hype over whether America is ready for a black president (DeAngelis,2008). Race is a phenomenon that is over-theorized yet not directly associated with the social and political engagement. It is focused on identity more and clearly lacks political engagement. Some like to think that racism is over; however, it is continued in the form of lethal attacks, subtle discrimination, in differential opportunities, bullying, racial profiling, color-blind racism, genocide, behavior with new migrants, asylum seekers in context with nation-state, and political initiatives in Europe and elsewhere when it comes to integration. Moreover, recent outbreaks of ethnic cleansing from Iraq to Sudan highlight the presence of ethnicity in modern world and its conflicts (Bulmer and Solomos, 2004, pp.8 -10: Brett, 2002). The happenings such as migration, displacement, and differential reach to nation states and their allocation systems has created an intricate mixture of race, migration, and ethnicity. The older blades of
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This is because many of the factors that sum up to make up issues relation to gender specific work issues have tended to affect many females than they have affected males. In fact, gendered experience of work is largely understood to refer to feminist issues. Even so, there are occasionally scattered cases in which feminist theories may not apply as the foundation upon which all arguments emanate (Alsop et al., 2002, p. 154).
Cinema audience would applaud performers who commit crimes or illegal acts since they were portrayed by the lead characters. Usually, the audience would side with the actors/actresses despite commission of acts that run counter to the tenets of ethics and morality.
On the other hand, race refers to biological subspecies that consist of individuals with similar biological traits that are socially significant distinguishable from other races. Racial distinction is on basis of skin color, color of the hair, and other specific facial features that cluster in to a single distinct group of people.
Members of a racial group use ethnic symbols as a method of identification, since this helps in creating a distinction between them, and other racial groups. These badges can either be their style of dressing, language and religion (Flax, 36). Biological characteristic such as the color of their skin is also an important indicator of a racial group.
There are many kinds of races and ethnicities in the world that create a difference from one geographic area to another. Countries have become interconnected over the years and there has been lots of travel, migration and mingling of all sorts that have made the presence of all races all over the world.
However, the stories of these uprooted people are always not ornamented with glittering dreams and joyous heart. Behind their peppy talk and sunny smile are the hidden stories of endless tears, countless fears, pang of being discriminated as something inferior and most importantly to spend years in a state where they are neither properly aware of their culture nor have been able to transport themselves completely into the United States of America culturally or mentally.
Slaves were officially counted as three-fifths of a person (Feigin & Feigin, 2002). Thomas Jefferson, who owned slaves, said in his Notes on the State of Virginia that he suspected that blacks were inferior to whites, therefore in his view justifying slavery.
Whereas, ethnicity applies to cultural characteristics unlike race, and is the basis for understanding concepts between two people of different "kinds."
The theories that claim that racial or ethnic groups are inherently inferior or superior and entitle some to dominate and to eliminate others, whom they consider inferior on the basis of racial discrimination, are totally contrary to moral and ethical principles of humanity.
e cultural, religious, behavioural, and geographical commonalities that are imputed to people belonging to a particular area, as opposed to genetic inheritance. The boundaries of authenticity are also very fluid and can depend on political, social, and historical situations.
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