Abstract Bullying among school-aged youth is increasingly highlighted as a significant challenge impacting on the well-being and social functioning of young people. Although, to a certain amount the conflict and harassment is characteristic of youth peer relations, bullying embodies a potentially more severe threat to health youth development…
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Whereas much of the attention on bullying pursue comprehending the impact of bullying on victims, it is essential to examine the predictors of bullying and the possible outcomes for bullies. The present literature on bullying lacks a consensus on an utilizable definition of bullying within research that varies as per theoretical framework. Despite the variability on definition, bullying is mainly considered a specific form of aggression whereby: (1) it is fashioned to harm (2) it manifests repetitively over time, and (3) displays a disparity of power. Overview for adolescent bullying Introduction Over the last two decades, the emphasis and focus has shifted to comprehending and preventing a certain form of aggression-bullying. Evidently, bullying has become a topic of interest and entails aspects such as threatening, name calling, isolating others, spreading rumours, and text messaging. Bullying has been found to increase during the middle school years with an estimated 10-30% of children being involved. Much has been written regarding bullying and victimization, which hold significant implications in research and school-side programs. The most promising programs detail those that focus on the individual, the immediate family, and the wide community simultaneously (Hawker & Boulton, 2000). Adolescence can be regarded as the period in which majority of the youth encounter numerous life altering events, some of which bear impacts on their adulthood and beyond. This makes it critical to understand why the young people find themselves in the present position, and aid them comprehend how the choices they arrive at impact significantly on their life. There are diverse theoretical perspectives on bullying and the predictors, namely: ethological perspective; ecological and socio-ecological theories; cognitive and social-cognitive theories; and, genetic and other biologic theories. Bullying can take multiple forms, and bear adverse effects such as inflicting harm on individuals perceived to have low self-esteem or to be perceived as weak individual (Massachusetts Citizens for Children, 2012). Bullying can manifest physically and mentally and both bear a negative effect on the victim and the actor. The most dominant forms of bullying reported by boys entail threats, physical harm, name-calling, and rejection. Direct verbal aggression was the most predominant form of bullying, manifesting with matching frequency in both sexes. Direct physical aggression is more common among boys while indirect forms of physical aggression are dominant among girls. Research inspecting characteristics of youth involved in bullying has constantly unearthed that both bullies and those bullied manifest poor psychosocial functioning compared to non-involved peers. Bullies others are inclined to demonstrate enhanced levels of conduct challenges and dislike of school, whilst the victims of bullying manifest enhanced levels of insecurity, depression, loneliness, unhappiness, and low self-esteem, physical and mental symptoms (Morrison, 2002). Bullying has overtime gained topicality among both adolescent and adult interactions with advancement in technological broadening the stage for bullying. Close to 60% of the adolescents labelled as bullies within the middle school perpetrate one crime by the time they attain the age of 24. Some of variables that conspire to create environments in which bullying is likely to occur included harsh and punitive discipline methods, lower-quality classroom instruction, disorganized classroom, student social structures, and school settings. One of the well known meta-analysis of school-based anti-bullying programs
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The paper looks at the various methods that are used in perpetrating cyber bullying, including emails and social media sites. The study also looks at the various stakeholders who can act in order to create and implement legislation and school programs that will help in diminution or extinction of cyber bullying; these include governments and the school administrations.
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First, bullying and pressures engender a lot of psychological and emotional stress in victims and some of the injured tend to develop into bullies. Such evolution often occurs as a defense mechanism of the pushover in order to survive the bullying he experiences.
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They have consequently instituted a wide range of measures aimed at averting this social problem. According to Stoker & Bonds (2010), 46 states in the United States have now enacted anti-bullying laws and policies. In most of these states, such laws
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