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Bullying and Attachment Styles - Coursework Example

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Attachment is the emotional bond that is established between primary giver and a child. It begins in infancy and continues through adulthood.( Bowlby 1968) Attachment can be categorised into two broad categories: secure and insecure.( Ainsworth Bell and Syton 1971) A secure attachment provides a person with a secure base from which to explore the world, and the individual is aware that another person is there to provide support when they are in distress, hence secure individuals are able to develop healthy interpersonal relationships with their peers and others…
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Bullying and Attachment Styles
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Download file to see previous pages This study will use a purposive sample of university students to gather self-reports of attachment with parents, relationships with others, and bullying experiences, "Then", retrospectively of high school, and "Now" at university. The aim of this study is to bring awareness of bullying and to bring in anti bullying schemes not only in schools but universities.
Attachment is an emotional bond formed first during infancy between the primary caregivers and the child. Later attachment figures are expected to be peers during the high school years (Freeman & Brown, 2001). It is through the process of attachment to a significant other that an individual learns to interact with others, and to take part in meaningful and balanced interpersonal social relationships (Bowlby, 1969). Research into attachment styles and patterns began in the early 1960s (Ainsworth, 1968; Ainsworth, Bell & Stayton, 1971; Bowlby, 1969). Since, the topic was introduced there has been an avid research area among social scientists. Most researchers take an ecological approach in that the "whole" life of the individual is taken into account (Hamilton, 2000). Attachment styles can be divided into two broad categories: secure and insecure (Ainsworth, Bell & Stayton, 1971). Secure relationships result in healthy social relationships with others, and in cases of parents/caregivers, these significant others are seen as sources of support. Whereas insecure relationships are tend to result in unbalanced social interactions as the individual finds it difficult to trust others, and parents/caregivers are perceived as unreliable and unsupported.
Childhood attachment styles have been found to be stable into adolescence and adulthood (Hamilton, 2000; shield, 2001). Further, studies indicate that individuals of insecure attachment styles have a greater likelihood to become bullies, or to be bullied.

Attachment: A Review of Literature
Attachment is the emotional bond that grows between the child and caregiver (Bowlby, 1968/1982). Attachment processes facilitate a child in future relationship building. Often in western societies the mother is the primary caregiver. John Bowlby (1969/1982) developed a theory about a child's relationship with its mother that was paradigmatic shift in how familial relationships were viewed. After reading Lorenz's (1935) paper on imprinting, Bowlby had empirical support for rejecting Freud's reason of sensuous oral fixation. The mother-infant bond was more than oral gratification and mother love. He used concepts from ethnology to investigate and explain child-mother relationships. Spitz (1962) and Erikson (1960) encouraged Bowlby to explore the idea of critical periods in a child's psychological development (cited in Bowlby, 1969/1982). Especially, he focused on a critical period for bonding to occur, and initiated studies into mother-child separation. He also incorporated theories by Fabian (1952) and Winnicott (1965) of object relations, and so emphasized interpersonal relationships, particularly ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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