The main criticism that Ralf Dahrendorf had about sociologists was that realities of social conflicts were given very little attention and class was defined too narrowly with respect to advanced society. …
Download file to see previous pages...
According to him, modern societies are more complex than what it is portrayed by the sociologists. He also believes that integration and consensus that are present in modern social structures have been ignored. Dahrendorf criticised the socialists for assuming a utopian and false representation of consensus, stability and social harmony1. He believed that in modern societies, hierarchies of authority were inevitable. Dahrendorf suggests that exercise of authority must be criterion for formation of class and not possession of private property. He is of the view that the society must be split up among those who command and those who obey and the conflict would be the struggle between those with and without authority2. This criticism is relevant to the Davis Moore analysis for explaining the rise of inequality and stratification in modern societies. According to Davis and Moore, members of a society must be distributed among a variety of social positions. Members in different positions enjoy different levels of authority. Dahrendorf’s argument that hierarchies of authority are inevitable can be used to explain rise of inequality and stratification in modern societies. Davis and Moore argue that social inequality is necessary and universal3. 2.What is the difference and similarity between Karl Marx and Max Weber's approaches for analyzing social stratification in capitalism? (Make sure you define clearly Weber’s and Marx’s definitions of class). How did Weber approach the study of stratification in capitalism and how did Marx approach it. The explanation of Marx and Weber are the most powerful explanations of social conflict. The explanations have some similarities and difference. According to Marx, ownership of property is what defines the class of an individual. There are three main classes according to Marxism: The bourgeoisie (own the means of production and profits is their source of income), the proletariat (labours who sell their labour for wage) and landowners (rent is the source of their income). But it is the conflict between the bourgeoisie and proletariat that mainly characterises the class structure4. Marx’s capitalistic approach was that the conflict between bourgeoisie and proletariat was a conflict between capitalists and wageworkers respectively. That is, control over the means of production (social production) also gave the capitalists control over the class that was involved in the production of goods. That the capitalists exploited the wage works. Weber’s theory of stratification was different from that of Marx as it was rooted in the belief that the education and skill of a person is what determines the class position and not their relationship to the means of production. Weber believed that the solution to stratification was in creation of equal opportunities within a capitalist competitive system. According to Weber social structure depended on three main factors: class, status and power5. Unlike Marx, Weber did not believe that ownership of capital was alone responsible for stratification. Weber defined class as the economic position of a person. 3.What does Marx mean by the circuits C-M-C to M-C-M? Explain what C AND M mean, what two characteristics does C have? What does Marx mean by exploitation and how does it relate to his analysis of the source of profit in capitalism? C-M-C and M-C-M are abstract circuits of exchange according to Marx which explains the transformation of money into capital. C means commodity and M means money in the circuit6. Something that can be bought and sold in a market, or even exchanged, is known as a commodity and it has following two
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
According to functionalist theorists, social change is instigated either from other social systems, or through apprehension and injury within the system that are particularly related to the economic activities of the system. When the social change occurs due to various economic activities, then society as a whole has to adapt to the changes in the system.
Class struggle was the central theme upon which he supported most of his theories, however he wrote with an idea to the utopian society. Born in 1818, he attended school in Berlin where he was in the ‘post-graduate club’, a place where much of his intellectualized concepts would be developed due to his exposure to Bruno Bauer and Frederick Koppen.
The American constitution, though inspirational to many nations, has some structural and functional weaknesses. The constitution helped strengthen federalism by formulating a stronger and fully fledged federal government. It corrected the pre-1878 US where the federal government had to rely on the states for virtually all its operations.
In addition, a number of writers and publicists have written books on the various social and economic issues that today’s society is undergoing, and despite the fact that a few individuals have paid attention, their efforts are still not enough. Theorists and sociologists have also not been left behind in trying to create this awareness.
We have seen many theories of society that will help explain to us why some people act this way or that way. These many theories try to explain why person is sad or mad or glad or a just a plain old dad.
Many other cultures tolerate or encourage polygamy. There have been major changes in patterns of family life in the United States during the postwar period: a high percentage of women are in the paid labor force, rates of divorce are rising, and substantial numbers of children live either in single-parent households or with stepfamilies.
Over the last decade or so, there is this outcry against anything that falls within the category of 'multinational'. The very term denotes a firm that has a presence globally or rather one that would like to be known in more parts of the world than it is at the present point in time.
Thus Marxism approaches history in a manner that explains the situation present in many countries today (Mclellan 2007). History is seen as a source of conflict between three different sources, each trying to survive. Amongst this are the different social classes which include the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, the development in the factors of production such as labor force and technology and last institutions themselves that enforce this materialistic concept onto society.
The author deduces that the model envisages a person who has perfect self-interest, perfect rationality and perfect information. This concept owes its genesis to Utilitarian economists like Jeremy Bentham who propounds that society should aim for the greatest happiness of the greatest number by maximizing the total utility of individuals.
This paper illustrates that there is no doubt in the idea that living in the social environment should be considered to be an irreplaceable prerequisite for the development of the potential of a human being to its fullest. Indeed, it provides an individual with numerous opportunities to adopt and master different abilities which are largely regarded as characteristic to our kind.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Ralf Dahrendorf for FREE!