Arguments for and Against the Existence of God - Research Paper Example

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Arguments for and Against the Existence of God Introduction Scholars and philosophers have made varied arguments in favor and against the existence of god time to time. This paper attempts to explore the ontological, teleological, cosmological, and kalam arguments given in favor or against the existence of God…
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Arguments for and Against the Existence of God
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Download file to see previous pages Descartes argues that existence is perfection than existence in our imagination or thoughts and therefore the idea that the most perfect being (God) does exist in reality. This is an argument in favor of God's existence purely based on reason and no need to go for physical proof of God's existence. This is also known as a priori argument. Jordon (2011) argues that medieval philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine has defined God as “that than which no greater can be conceived.” Thomas Aquinas is of the view that God's existence is self-evident and he assumes that God is omnipotent and omniscient and thereby perfect. Jordon highlights the view of scholars such as William Hasker that refutes and argues against the above classical model that tries to prove the existence of God. As proposed by Hasker, the model is not compatible with the significant freedom available to human beings. Himma (2005) argues that how the philosophy of perfection in existence has been refuted by many scholars such as Kant. Kant (1965) is of the view that human beings cannot know whether there is a God or not. It is neither an argument against the existence of God or in favor of God. Kant refutes to acknowledge any non-empirical knowledge. Overman (2010) argues that God did create this universe. He discusses about Thomas Aquinas who had a mystical experience wherein he gained the knowledge of God and this experience is not unusual as vast array of literatures also exemplifies about the people who time to time had such experience. Overman discusses about his classmate Richard Smalley, a Nobel Prize winner for chemistry in 1996, that how in later years Richard believed that God created this universe some 13.5 billion years ago. As per Richard, it is getting clearer to modern science that the universe was fine tuned to create human life. Overman also stresses that there are many people such as Sagan and Weinberg in the scientific and academic world who do not share the same view. Teleology Argument in Favor of Existence of God A teleology argument is also addressed as design argument. According to this argument, the purpose and design are quite apparent in nature and there has to be a designer called God in common parlance. The order within order in nature suggests the existence of God. St. Thomas Aquinas also made use of the teleological argument to prove the existence of God. Jordan (2011) has put forward the views of William Paley as teleological argument to prove God's existence. Paley states as without a watchmaker there is no possibility of a complex watch to come into being; similarly, there has to be an intelligent creator to make this complex universe. He argues that natural processes are so incredibly interwoven and intricately contrived to prove that there is an intelligent creator behind it. Paley reemphasizes that the existence with such a complex and fine tuning could have just come up by chance is simply the notion that only fools can have. Sobel (2003) demonstrates how Hume was quite critical of teleological argument on the existence of God. Hume argued that existence had not been designed by someone nor he accepted that there was an order in the nature. Whatever order is there that is made by human beings on the chaotic happening of nature. According to Hume, there is no empirical evidence for any purpose or order in this world. Hume further argued that the world is full of imperfection and therefore creator, if there is one, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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