Sociology is a study that deals with the society and its components. It inspects behaviors, norms, and principles that constitute a society. People’s actions are also examined that lead to the development of classical theories…
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The classical theories are argued by Anthony Giddens because of their conventionality, which are distant from his modern principles. This paper aims to critically analyse the book of Giddens entitled The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. It will further examine the main argument of the text, the purpose of the author in proposing a concept, and the critical evaluation and reflection of the book’s content. Summary Practical Consciousness Giddens highlighted in his book the relevance of practical consciousness. Practical consciousness is one of the three levels of consciousness that refer to the actors’ silent understanding of the consequences of their own action. The purpose of the writer is to identify the difference of practical consciousness from the other two consciousness: discursive and unconscious. Giddens argument is centered on the role of motivation and cognition in influencing the practical level of consciousness. Giddens acknowledges routinisation as the principal approach in his structuration theory and asserts the relation of motivation in Goffman’s assumption of co-presence....
In his book, The Constitution of Society, Giddens attenuates of breaking the normative method of constructing theory, but objectivity and subjectivity are necessary in the interpretation of structuration theory. Ritzer (2005, p.322) states that the “dissatisfaction on the divide of objectivist and subjectivist explanations of social phenomena” prompted Giddens in structuring an approach. Objectivism treats human agents as controlled subject or puppets that are under the creativity of the theorist, while subjectivism annihilates actors from the framework of their social life. This has been the observation of Giddens from the previous works of the classical theorist, which affects his judgment on the macro and micro sociological theories. The dissatisfaction of Giddens leads to the duality of structure wherein he iterates that despite the “transformation into structural principles, sets, and properties -- rules and resources are produced and reproduced by agents” who rationalize their communication (Turner, 1986, p.973). Thus, the human actors tacitly monitor their actions, which construe the assertion of Sica (1986, p.345) on the comprehension of human actors on the environment that molds their action and of others. The introduction explains Giddens’ (1984, p.xxii) conception of the ideas converge from different sources in honing the “established views” so that their significance is manifested. This explains of the case study and theorist present in the body of his argument such as Heidegger, Bettelheim, and Goffmann. He extracts and criticises the content of the argument by detailing the limitation of the study;
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