A fossil that seemed controversial was found several decades ago in Germany in a valley best known as Neander near to Dusseldorf. Initially, the fossil resembled human being but several studies later revealed that the fossil was an ape…
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The fossil was called a Neanderthal man and was scientifically classified as a Homo Neanderthalensis. This clearly portrayed that the fossil traits were distinct to those of a human beings. However, following a series of studies, the evolutionary theory was later cracked and collapsed and Homo Neanderthalensis was reclassified into a new scientific classification called Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis. This is because the fossil appeared more human than it was previously established and was considered sub-human. Hot debate is ongoing on classification of the German based fossil as a sub-human because many historians and anthropologists believe that Homo Sapien Neanderthalensis did not have all the traits of a human being. This is because according to Lubenow (2004, p. 207), the controversial argument has mainly resulted from Neanderthals various deficiencies especially those concerning their mental, physical and even the cultural capabilities. However, different explanations exist regarding the physical abnormalities. Adequate proof also concerning culture, intellect and even interaction between the Neanderthal and the modern human has been presented. Fabrega (2002) stated that technological innovation of Neanderthals indicated that there was curation, planning, skilled craftsmanship. They also had above average mental capabilities including manufacture of blades and bones tools. Similarities and differences of the Neanderthal group and the modern human First, both the Neanderthal individuals and the modern human belong to a symbolic community. The two groups were able to come up with a communal map using their own knowledge gained from their daily exposure to memory stores that are external and various rituals, especially when burying the death. In the case of the modern man, their behaviour and cognition results mainly from the various beliefs, rules and values that govern their behaviour. All these form a symbolic cultural meaning to all things present and actions committed by them (chase, 1994). Secondly, various archaeological records bring out possible culture of music. In the archaeological records, there is clear evidence distinctly portraying the existence of music in the world of Neanderthal that resembled that of the modern man. Neanderthal flutes that were fragmented discovered indicate that the Neanderthal individual appreciated music just like a modern man. In fact, the Neanderthal flute was similar to western music’s seven-note system, which clearly portrayed the existing similarities between the Neanderthal people and the modern man. At the present age, people still appreciates music in a variety of ways. Third, both the Neanderthal individuals and the modern man practiced symbolism. There is evidence of burial practices by the Neanderthal individuals and burial practices are believed to be symbolic. Symbolism utilization by the Neanderthal individuals is clearly portrayed in the archaeological records. For example, a baby’s remains were revealed when a site located in Israel was unearthed. A bone belonging to a red deer had been positioned cautiously on the baby’s hip and buried. Still in Israel, at a place known as Qafzeh another baby belonging to the Neanderthal people was discovered. The baby was buried across a Neanderthal male’s feet. Lastly, another use of symbolism was witnessed in Syria and was perceived as having been the greatest evidence. This mainly concerned a small Neanderthal baby who had been buried deep in a pit. With it, laid a flint tool in a location where initially the baby’s heart had been crushed. All these examples clearly portray that the Neandert
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