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Parkinson diease reserach - Research Paper Example

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Introduction: - Parkinson’s disease was first described in 1817 by British physician James Parkinson. The primary problem underlying the disease, however, was discovered as late as the early 1960s when scientists identified absence of brain cells that produce dopamine, an important chemical in the nervous system, as the cause of PD…
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Download file to see previous pages Parkinson’s Disease most often develops at the age of 50 and is one of the most common nervous system diseases. It impacts men and women both and may be a part of heredity of some families. Causes and Symptoms: - The striatum is responsible for accepting information from neurotransmitters and interacting with other parts of the brain, especially the cerebellum to form movement. The primary region impacted as a result of PD is called the Substantia Nigra. This region contains specialized neurons that send signals in the form a neurotransmitter called Dopamine. Degeneration of Substantia Nigra results in excessive firing of nerve cells resulting in huge difficulties in controlling movement, eventually resulting in primary motor symptoms of PD (Driley, Aelang, Blair, ABirniuam, & Bried, 1989). Scientists have identified several cellular characteristics responsible for neuronal degeneration. Parkinson’s disease may affect one or both sides of the body, however, the amount of functionality of any part lost may vary from patient to patient. Initial symptoms are mild, e.g. a patient may have a mild tremor or a slight feeling or being dragged. Such symptoms culminate latter during the disease and can lead to several malfunctioning or nonfunctioning body parts (AE, 2009). Some of the chief symptoms may include automatic movements of body parts, such as increase or decrease in the speed of blinking, constant constipation and digesting difficulties, difficulty in swallowing, drooling, impaired balance and walking sense which can cause faintness or falls, lack of expression on the face which may be perceived as numbness or indifference and muscle aches and pains. Parkinson’s Disease is a devastating disease that interferes with and hinders movement more and more as time progresses. The most significant difficulties faced by Parkinson’s patients are movement problems which are signified by the following characteristics: - Slowed movement patterns in all fronts. Constant stooped position. Complete loss of small or fine hand movements and difficulty in writing and eating. Difficulties in initiating and continuing movements such as starting to walk or moving across the table. (Zesiewicz, Sullivan, Arnulf I, Morgan, & GS, 2010). Parkinson’s disease also results in shaking and tremors that can take the following forms: - Tremors usually occur in the limbs when at rest or when the arm or leg is held out. Movement circumcises tremors temporarily. The tremors start affecting head, lips, tongue and feet over time, Finger-thumb rubbing can also be seen. Other symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include Anxiety, stress and tension, confusion, Dementia, Depression, hallucinations and an incessant sense of fainting. There is considerable debate over whether Parkinson’s disease in inherited or not. The form of Parkinson’s disease prevalent in younger people may show that it is inherited. Parkinson’s in elderly patients, however, does not show any sign of inheritance. The current consensus on the subject is that although Parkinson’s is not completely inherited, there is some component of the gene which may react in only specific subjects to produce Parkinson’s disease. (Tanner, Goldman, & Ross, 2002) Diagnosis: - Healthcare providers across the country can diagnose Parkinson’s disease in patients via physical tests or identification of symptoms. Identifying ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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