Topic: One proclaimed objective of school reformers was that students would have access to common schools, regardless of religion, social class, sex and colour. To what extent was this ideal realized in 19th century Canada? Education Reforms are executed for constructing a meaningful change in the mode of teaching which can have a formative effect on the mind, character and physical ability of any individual…
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School Reforms constitute programs and policies which will change procedures that will affect the school’s operation. Educational and School Reforms or renewals can be considered as a step towards change. It should be strictly noted that school reform, renewal and restructuring do not involve altering the school’s organization. School Reforms can be divided into two categories: First category comprises of the school’s subject matter and teaching methods. Second category includes reforms related to school administration and governance procedures. The reforms which are included in this section include managing the role of teacher and administrators (Hallinan, 2006 ). The educational history holds a focal point in Canadian’s social and political history timeline. During the 17th century in Canada education was merely considered just an informal process through which skills and values were transferred from parents to their children, relatives and older siblings. After the passage of hundred years the informal learning process was recognized through provincial governments. At this point in time collective public funds were spent on school system in Canada as compared to any other country. During French regime in Canada, the process of learning was incorporated into daily activities. Youngsters were taught skills such as gardening, spinning, land clearing, trade procedures etc. Formal education of females was limited and it was not extended beyond religious education and the art of needlework. The various provinces in Canada had educational system based on religion which were later abolished the government (Bettina Bradbury, 2005). During the 18th and early 19th century, British government looked into the formal education system as a mean for promoting cultural identification and English language along with British customs. The concept of schooling become widespread in Canada during the early 19th century, where politicians, priests and educationalists started raising questions about educational financing, control and participation. By the mid of 19th century proper consensus was made and a legislation was approved for constructing schools in Canada, regardless of any social, cultural, race, color and political differences (Stephen B. Lawton, 1997). Schooling in Canada was being imparted following the lines of England and such education was provided by the efforts of religious organizations. However education was being imparted to the children of all societies whether rich or poor. But more advanced education was only limited to the upper classes which was provided in private schools. Towards the end of 19th century elementary schooling was considered as compulsory in Canada. With the passage of time secondary education was initiated along with distinction in levels and curriculum. Local communities were assigned the responsibility of schools maintenance by a combination lo taxes and provincial grants. The provincial departments were standardized for conducting school inspections, scrutiny, examinations and preparation of course content and materials (Hallinan, 2006 ). The Canadian government believed that it is the best option for transferring their lifestyle, traditions etc. to their generations. Initially for imparting education it was decided to teach children in churches, government funded
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