[Author’s Name] How Does Social Learning Theory of Criminology Best Explains Terrorism? Introduction The shift toward increased terrorism within the society is challenging and needs to be better understood…
Download file to see previous pages...
Social Learning theory suggests that behavior is learned. Individuals learn behavior through interactions with others. Specifically, individuals learn criminal behavior through exposure to definitions favorable or unfavorable to criminal actions (Akers “Social Learning and Social Structure” 10-21). This indicates Akers' assumptions about humans. The first of these assumptions is that at birth everyone is essentially a blank slate, and is in need of socialization that occurs in a learning process. The second assumption Akers makes about human beings in this theory is that they are rational beings. This can be described by saying that people, through their actions, seek pleasure and avoid pain, integrating the rational choice perspective (Akers “Social Learning and Social Structure” 25-40). For example, when applying this idea to terrorism, an individual may come into a situation in which he or she rationalizes the action that they are committing due to religious, social or political reasons. The ultimate intention of the individual is to utilize the fear and intimidation created by their actions to bring about socio-political change (Schmid and Jongman 10-15). The outcome of this event is part of the rationalization of the action. This demonstrates the concept of increasing pleasure and reducing pain. Akers also explains that behavior is viewed as either motivated or controlled. This motivation or control stems from four major dimensions of Social Learning theory. These four dimensions are differential association, definitions, differential reinforcement, and imitation (or modeling). To understand social learning, the concepts of differential association, definitions, differential reinforcement, and imitation must be defined (Akers “Social Learning and Social Structure” 10-21). Differential Association Differential association is "the process whereby one is exposed to normative definitions favorable or unfavorable to illegal or law-abiding behavior" (Akers, “Criminological Theories”, 143-144). This process occurs in an individual's peer groups. Peer groups can be either primary or secondary. Primary peer groups include friends and family. Secondary groups include institutions, schools, and the like. These groups not only expose the individual to definitions favorable or unfavorable to criminal behavior but also provide models to imitate and reinforcements for criminal or non-criminal behavior. Due to these multiple aspects of the peer group, this dimension is sometimes viewed as the most important dimension of social learning theory (Chappell & Piquero 108). An individual's differential associations are also affected by priority, duration, frequency and intensity. This simply means that the associations an individual has that appear earlier, last longer, occupy more time and involve others with which the individuals have close relationships with will be of more importance in forming the definitions favorable or unfavorable to certain behaviors. Once an individual develops a definition for or against a certain behavior they are more likely to perform that behavior. Definitions There appears to be no clear consensus on what Sutherland meant by the term "definitions." The interpretation that Akers provides includes techniques for the commission of crimes as well as
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Case Study: Social Learning Theory
A sixteen year old girl commits the heinous crime of murder, albeit as an accomplice rather than in the first degree. She expresses no remorse over her actions when she is caught, is defiant and unmanageable and is found to have multiple injection marks on her arm indicating extended drug abuse.
The changes in demographics, technology, skill demands and relationships have caused an increased demand for training of employees within organizations and companies (Clarke & Caffarella, 1999). It is as a result of this that these organizations have designed and implemented training programs and projects for its employees as effective approaches of meeting the increasing demands for knowledge, skills and the competitiveness within various markets (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, & Martin, 2005).
Social Learning Theory by Bandura. A detailed explanation on Bandura’s learning theory in relation to Psychotherapy is fundamental to the learning process. Bandura argues that an individual learns behavior from the surrounding by observational learning as apparent in Social Learning Theory.
The dissertation researches the central hypothesis that learning and employee development contributes to organisational success and performance. A review of the main existing literature on the subject has been undertaken with a view to establishing if there are any concentrating themes or gaps in evidence.
The overall argument by the department is based on the assumption that if children are constantly exposed to more abusive environment and behaviors, they may tend to acquire or develop such learning and become abusive and destructive citizens when they become adults.
Social learning theory states that individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if such behavior results in outcomes they value. It is posited that people are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer, possesses an admired status, and has a functional value.
He was able to further delve into this interest at Brooklyn College, where he attended seminars given by Adler and meetings of his Society of Individual Psychology at Adler's own home.
After leaving Brooklyn College, Rotter attended the University of Iowa where he studied speech pathology with the semanticist Wendell Johnson, who had a great and enduring influence on Rotter's thinking about the use of language in psychology.
Luckily, modern psychology provides us with the variety of learning theories that can be useful tools to ease the process of learning.
Style of learning is the first of these tools. There exist about 80 learning style models. VAK model