Name: Professor: Course: Date: Section 1 - Review of Past Literature Child abuse is a problem reaching epidemic proportions. According to statistics, the number of child abuse increased over the past decade. Statistics stated that, at the present time, incidences of child abuse are accounted in every ten seconds…
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These affect their physical and psychological behaviors and consequently development and growth of children. These have contributed to continued pattern of abuse and probable harm to the society with counting cost factors such as medical bills, welfare cost and legal systems. Child abuse ultimately affects the society and a consistent need to support and protect the children is of the essence as they are at the heart of a bright future (Corby, 2006). Definition of Child Abuse Child abuse is the maltreatment of a person below the age of 18 regardless of their relation. There are different forms of child abuse, which are more, than the verbal or physical action. Child abuse is not always immediately recognizable and, as a result, thousands of cases go unreported each year. According to Child Protective Services and Dependency Action (2009), there are four most common types of abuse: physical, emotional, neglect and sexual abuse. Physical injury involves hitting, shaking, burning, human biting and strangling. The consequences of this abuse include the damage of child’s brain and psychology such as cognitive delays or emotional difficulties. These difficulties often show high risk of behavior, depressions, and anxiety, which lead to physical, and personal health problems (Wang and Holton, 2007). Sexual Abuse involves body contact, such as kissing and touching different body parts, forcing children to look at pornography, pressure for sex and abuse them as prostitutes (Clark and Adamec, 2007). It is estimated that about one out of six boys and 1 out of 4 girls are sexual abused. Emotional abuse is the act or omissions by an older person that cause psychological disorders. Humiliation, threats, yell, ignorance and blame are ways of emotional abuse (McClennen, 2009). Neglect is the letdown by a parent, or a protector to offer needed clothing, food, medical care, shelter and supervision to the degree that the child's health, safety and well-being are compromised (Bales, 2004). The data from US Department of Health and Human Service shows: National Child Abuse Statistics in 2010 Suffer Neglect 7.6% Emotional Abuse 4.2% Sexual Abuse 59.0% Physical Abuse 17.6% Causes of Child Abuse Several factors are believed to cause child abuse. The level of immaturity and strain may result them into abuse. These could be significantly enhanced by their unrealistic expectations, emotional problems, economic crisis and lack of parenting knowledge. Another factor is domestic violence and substance abuse. Hermes (2010) stated that "children who reside in homes where violence is rife typically end up becoming victims themselves, 50 to 70% of men who abuse their female partners also abuse their children". Alcohol and substance abuse also largely contribute to cases of child abuse as they affect their mental judgment and decision-making (Heitritter and Vought, 2006). Effects of Child Abuse It is approximated that 80 percent of children who are abused at the age of four die. Criminal behavior are sometime as a result of child abuse. Cases of men and women in penitentiaries who were maltreated as children were evident. Victims are more likely to experience teen pregnancy and involvement in unsafe sex putting them in greater risk of STD’s. Victims become venerable to various issues later in their life, such as emotional instability, behavioral problems, depression and violence (Kerry
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