Motivation ( ) - Literature review Example

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Motivation can be defined as force that develops within an individual and makes him develop a “can do” attitude. Theories of motivation encapsulate all those processes which explain the development of motivation in people. …
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Motivation (Literature Review)
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Download file to see previous pages Managers need to have a sound understanding of the potential factors that drive employees’ motivation in order to take the best out of them.
In common practice, the salary of professional employees increases as they increase in age. It so happens because with the passage of time, the employee gains more experience, so he/she is able to make use of it by getting promoted and thus, being paid more. The rate of increase of pay is controlled by a number of factors in addition to the employee’s ability that include but are not limited to the nature and scope of work, the positions offered, and the opportunities associated with the work.
In the Characteristic Model of Motivation, a job has core dimensions such as skill variety, task identity, autonomy, and feedback. To the extent that these are present in a job, the employee will experience certain psychological states such as experiencing meaningfulness in the work and assume responsibility for outcomes as well as have better knowledge of the actual results of work activities. The more frequent and satisfying these psychological states are, the higher the internal motivation, the better quality the performance, the greater the satisfaction, and the lower the absenteeism and turnover. (Griffin, 1999, p. 328 cited in Jordan, n.d.). Hence, an employee demands challenging work along with due support of the peers and management and finally, the reward of pay increase. Every individual progresses in his/her career in accordance with a particular remuneration “grade line” that is unique. Employee belonging to a certain field acquires norms from the very remuneration grade according to his/her own ability. The individual is caught in frustration when his/her salary and level of working decline to the extent of dropping below this grade line. This is what happens when he/she is left behind the friends and colleagues that are his/her age and are involved in similar kind of work. “Progress according to these remuneration grade lines is the norm, is the way in which others doing similar work at the same age are in fact progressing” (Davidmann, 2006). Changes from the remuneration grade line are quickly assessed by the employee. An upward movement is understood as promotion whereas a downward movement is perceived as demotion in comparison to the colleagues that belong to the same field, are the same age, and at the same level. Employees that progress in their profession with respect to their remuneration grade line feel that their expectations from the job are being met and hence remain satisfied. Employees gain satisfaction or dissatisfaction according to the knowledge of their position in the community. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction results into motivation or demotivation respectively. What impacts employees the most is their intense concern regarding increased differentials between theirs and their colleagues’ statuses. Employees strive hard to sustain their position, thus trying to acquire their individualistic share of the increasing national income. When work environments consistently fail to provide the direction, resources and respect employees require, their innate desire to achieve is suppressed or redirected. They experience frustration and a kind of learned helplessness. They become motivated to retain their jobs rather than to perform them in a way that delivers optimal value to the organization. (Roulet, 2009). Theoretical Analysis Of all the motivational theories, two types that apply the most to the case under consideration are the content theories and the process theories. The content theories of motivation assert that human behavior is controlled by intrinsic factors. These internal desires convince people to behave in a certain way. Major content theories ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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