Motivation can be defined as force that develops within an individual and makes him develop a “can do” attitude. Theories of motivation encapsulate all those processes which explain the development of motivation in people. …
Download file to see previous pages...
Managers need to have a sound understanding of the potential factors that drive employees’ motivation in order to take the best out of them.
In common practice, the salary of professional employees increases as they increase in age. It so happens because with the passage of time, the employee gains more experience, so he/she is able to make use of it by getting promoted and thus, being paid more. The rate of increase of pay is controlled by a number of factors in addition to the employee’s ability that include but are not limited to the nature and scope of work, the positions offered, and the opportunities associated with the work.
In the Characteristic Model of Motivation, a job has core dimensions such as skill variety, task identity, autonomy, and feedback. To the extent that these are present in a job, the employee will experience certain psychological states such as experiencing meaningfulness in the work and assume responsibility for outcomes as well as have better knowledge of the actual results of work activities. The more frequent and satisfying these psychological states are, the higher the internal motivation, the better quality the performance, the greater the satisfaction, and the lower the absenteeism and turnover. (Griffin, 1999, p. 328 cited in Jordan, n.d.). Hence, an employee demands challenging work along with due support of the peers and management and finally, the reward of pay increase. Every individual progresses in his/her career in accordance with a particular remuneration “grade line” that is unique. Employee belonging to a certain field acquires norms from the very remuneration grade according to his/her own ability. The individual is caught in frustration when his/her salary and level of working decline to the extent of dropping below this grade line. This is what happens when he/she is left behind the friends and colleagues that are his/her age and are involved in similar kind of work. “Progress according to these remuneration grade lines is the norm, is the way in which others doing similar work at the same age are in fact progressing” (Davidmann, 2006). Changes from the remuneration grade line are quickly assessed by the employee. An upward movement is understood as promotion whereas a downward movement is perceived as demotion in comparison to the colleagues that belong to the same field, are the same age, and at the same level. Employees that progress in their profession with respect to their remuneration grade line feel that their expectations from the job are being met and hence remain satisfied. Employees gain satisfaction or dissatisfaction according to the knowledge of their position in the community. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction results into motivation or demotivation respectively. What impacts employees the most is their intense concern regarding increased differentials between theirs and their colleagues’ statuses. Employees strive hard to sustain their position, thus trying to acquire their individualistic share of the increasing national income. When work environments consistently fail to provide the direction, resources and respect employees require, their innate desire to achieve is suppressed or redirected. They experience frustration and a kind of learned helplessness. They become motivated to retain their jobs rather than to perform them in a way that delivers optimal value to the organization. (Roulet, 2009). Theoretical Analysis Of all the motivational theories, two types that apply the most to the case under consideration are the content theories and the process theories. The content theories of motivation assert that human behavior is controlled by intrinsic factors. These internal desires convince people to behave in a certain way. Major content theories
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
The concept of business diversity has thus been probed further and researched well. The liberalization and globalization basically worked to promote business diversity in early 1990’s. The liberalization of economies and adjustments and advancements in organizational structure further opened doors of business diversity (Ongori & Evans, 2007).
There may also be cases of dismissals, resignations and retirements that will all call for the need to recruit and employ new workers. Even though recruitment and selection are one of the very usual and inevitable corporate practices, it is very important to attend to them with great caution and in by following good recruitment and selection processes that would ensure the company does not suffer the consequences of poor recruitment.
Abudawood ID 291335 April 2nd, 2011 SUPERVISORS: Dr. Ruba Salih / Dr. Hassan Hakimian/ Professor Naila Kabeer ABSTRACT: I am hoping that this study will represent a significant milestone on a road that has been journeyed over by scholarship on gender and development specifically in the Middle East.
They tend to investigate the effect of content on the time needed to make the decision, the selection of participants, the quality of information and the criteria of decision. Bozeman and Pandey (2004) had hypothesized that lesser red tape is used for making the cutback decisions as compared to the information technology decisions.
...” (Robbins et.al, 2010 p.71) The elements which are stressed in this definition are intensity, direction and persistence. Intensity element is the most important of the three elements and gets the maximum focus as it is concerned about the extent how much an individual tries to achieve something.
Though every organisation possesses its own unique culture usually formed by the founding management of the organisation, it may get altered by the behaviour groups and individuals within the organisation. “Organisations with meaningful interpersonal communication may achieve a better shared definition of the organisation and hence a better communication environment” (Cameron & McCollum, 1993, p.6).
Many companies have become victims of these accusations with many more suffering price losses and even closures as a result of having their executives drawing more from the bank than the company would handle. Others have been accused of being involved in scandalous activities that have led to the collapse of company shares.
Over the years, the landscape and the modus operandi of the business organizations have changed. This change has affected the job descriptions of the managers also. Now, managers are not treated as just employees with power; rather, they are treated as entrepreneurs with responsibilities.
In work, motivation is the concept of reason for involvement in action. It is the explanation of overt behaviour in action, and it can explain nonovert behaviour such as practical reasoning and decision making and the states of mind that cause such nonovert behaviour, desires, intentions, and beliefs (Ntoumanis and Blaymires, 5-21).
More advanced methods of energy harvesting involve using microwave, magnetic resonant frequency and vibration energy. The motivation of RF energy harvesting is derived from the increasing need for energy recycling as it is
12 Pages(3000 words)Literature review
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Literature review on topic Motivation (Literature Review) for FREE!