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A person cannot be tortured because one has moral rights. Immanuel Kant is a famous philosopher who proposed a theory named categorical imperative. Categorical imperative is based on the moral principle and it is like a command to tell people what can be done and what cannot. The theory claims that everyone is a free person who has moral right and correlative duty to be compared with another in this way. Kant proposed two formulations of categorical imperative. Kant gives us a term “maxim” which can be explained as follows: “A maxim for Kant is the reason a person in certain situation has for doing what he or she plans to do. A maxim would “become a universal law” if every person in a similar situation chose to do the same thing for the same reason.” (p99) According to the definition of maxim, we can understand the first formulation easily. First formulation of Kant’s categorical imperative is that we only can act according to the reasons that we want others to do the same toward us in a similar situation, which means transpositonal consideration. Furthermore, the action is morally right if a person acts by a reason to others in a certain situation that he or she has the willing to let others treat him or her in the same situation. If the person cannot have the willing to have others to act the same way that he or she acts towards others, the action is morally wrong. The first formulation has two criteria to estimate whether an action is morally right or wrong. The first criterion is universality that means “the person’s reasons for acting must be reasons that everyone could act on at least in principle.” (p99) The second criteria is reversibility that means “the person’s reasons for acting must be reasons that that person would be willing to have all others use, even as a basis of how they treat him or her” (p99). The second formulation
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According to the task, these ethics can be explained in many different theories of ethics that include virtue ethics, rationality, utilitarianism, communitarianism, social ethics and normative ethics. Hence, international business ethics and corporate governance can be explained in various ways (Casson 95).
Business ethics are rules as well as standards which an organization is required to follow while performing its activities or operations. It mainly consists of moral standards which vary among organizations and it also helps in determining the right and the wrong decisions.
For example, according to the limited knowledge of the researcher, Magna Carta of 1215 was the first legal reference for ethics in UK (Holme, 2008). However, magnitude of importance for ethical perspective of business operation has been increased manifold in recent years after the financial scams by corporate such as Enron, Lehman Brothers, Worldcom, Nortel and many others came to the light.
Business ethics theories are often adopted by organisations seeking to curb practices that are deemed as corrupt. They usually have moral principles that organisations can implement to make sure that all the workers operating in the company conform to accepted codes of behaviour
Examples of ethical issues concerning three different issues have been explained along with their alleged law suits that have flagged these issues in the United States.
Business ethics are the moral eternal, abstract, and the
To some, the suggestion that an orderly and analytical process of decision making, not only on a personal level – but more so in business, should include the discussion of highly controversial ethical issues, about which
The other group of business people takes it as avoiding activities that portray bad image of the company. If the above are not considered as business ethics the business institutions may suffer loss or may earn the business bad reputation.Business people believe that if good business ethics are adhered to then the business will experience an upward trend with a lot of profit.
A similarity between ethics in the United States and ethics in Asia is that they address a variety of similar factors such as pollution, corruption, fraud and contracts among others. Although approaches to dealing with
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