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Political Efficacy: Political efficacy means that effective social and political change can be brought in society by the involvement of individual citizen. Political efficacy has its significance in the first stage process that is registration of the voter but has less influence…
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Political Efficacy: Political efficacy means that effective social and political change can be brought in society by the involvement of individual citizen. Political efficacy has its significance in the first stage process that is registration of the voter but has less influence on turnout (Leighley, 15).

Presidential Debates: Presidential debate is a campaign tool applied by the presidential candidates before election to influence the voters so that the voter’s uncertainty with the candidate’s policy and ideology gets reduced. Presidential debates educate voters and acts as source of information about the candidates (Leighley , 2010).
Political Advertisements: Political advertisement is a way of the political party to connect to the voters to deliver their political messages. The advertisement is a part of campaigning strategy. It acts as a marketing tool for the party (Foster, 2010).
Electoral College: Electoral College consists of group of electors or representatives of the state who elects the president. The significance of such system is that the system brings the cohesion of the country by ensuring that the elected president has distributed popular support and is not selected on the domination of one or two region support (Kimberling, 9-10).

Political Ideology: Political ideology is the set of ideas and belief that a group of individual possess regarding the interpretation of social and economic environment around them. It is argued that the members of public are ideological in the sense that they hold logical, coherent, sophisticated attitude. The significance of ideology is the fact that it helps in rationalizing the way things are or whether there is any better option for improving the existing social order (Jost, et al, 307).
Public Financed Elections: Public financing is the way of financing campaign where the public provides money and other resources to the favorite and qualified candidates to run their office and election campaign. The significance of public financing is that it reduces the dependence on private sector for funds which thereby reduces the distortions in governmental process and public financing also encourages the qualified candidates to come forward to take part in elections who earlier were prohibited in election campaigns due to lack of funds (Levin).
Attentive Public: Attentive public is a small group which is more of a representative of general public and consists of best educated persons who are interested in current political trends and are politically involved. They focus on predicting political policies and their rational thinking guides them during election process (Walden, 1990).
Independent Expenditures: One of the most controversial campaign financing today is independent expenditure where an individual or group is allowed to spend unlimited amount of money or resources on any candidate as long as these expenditures are not made on the prior consent of the candidate or any agent authorized by him. Independent expenditure provides a party with an effective tool to avoid spending limit problems imposed by federal election laws (Abramowitz & Segal, 137-39)
Special vs. Public Interest Groups: Public interest group is concerned with the good for whole society without any bias towards any particular segment of the society while special interest group depends on government spending lobby policy makers for government favor towards them. Conflicts of interest arise when any government official makes a judgment in favor of a special interest group resulting in personal economic benefit (Maxwell et al, 133-36).
Citizen Journalists: Citizen Journalists are those people who are engaged in news gathering and contribute reports to various news channels via mail, texts, photographs, videos. Citizen journalism is of significance as they can help people facing crisis and can present the actual report before masses by being an eye witness to the crisis (Allan and Thorsen, 17-30)
Allan, Stuart and Thorsen, Ellen. Citizen Journalism: Global perspective, Peter Lang Publishing, 2009, Print.
Abramowitz, Allan I. &  Segal, Jeffrey A. Senate Elections, University of Michigan Press, 1992, Print.
Foster, Steven. Political Communication, Edinburg University Press, 2010, Print.
Kimberling, William C. The Electoral College, National Clearinghouse on Election Administration, 1992, Print.
Jost, John et al. Political Ideology: Its Structure, Functions, and Elective Affinities. Annual Review of Psychology.(2009)60,pp 307-37
Leighley, Jan E. The Oxford Handbook of American Elections and Political Behavior. OUP, 2010, Print.
Levin, Steven M. Keeping It Clean: Public Financing in American Elections, 2006, Available from:
Maxwell, William et al(2009). Texas Politics Today. Cengage Brain
Walden, Graham R. Public opinion polls and survey research: A selective Annotaed Bibliography of U.S. guides and studies from the 1980s, Routledge, 2014, Print. Read More
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