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His intension was to protect administration from political interference. He further indicated that administrations and politics are two distinct disciplines. His main concern was the influence that politics had on administration (Wilson, 1887). He argued that the plans of the government are not administrative and so the two should be kept apart. He later realized that the two cannot be kept apart and embraced dichotomy and agreed that they should be used to improve policies. Public administration dichotomy means that public administrators should be involved in policy processes and politicians should also be involved in administrative processes (Wilson, 1966). Other authors of public administration like (Yang and Hozler, 2005) agreed that administration should be used to protect politics and democracy from its own excesses. Another public administration proponent of the separation of public administration and politics was Goodnow who was of the opinion that politics had a strong effect on public administration.
Separating politics and public administration has not been achievable and the debate to keep the two apart continues. However the reality is that they influence each other. According to (Overeem, 2005), the dichotomy between public administration and politics mean that public administrators be politically neutral. Public administration should be impartial and not get involved in politics and its controversies.
The insistence on the separation of public administration and politics lays emphasis on specialization and order in policy making and government administration. Since public administration and politics cannot be kept apart, they can be dichotomized in five ways; there has to be a distinction between policy and management, extend it from the inner workings of the government to the political body, keeping administration from political control, call for
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To accomplish these tasks, administrators are appointed by the government. They are responsible for implementing the rules imposed by the government. In certain countries the public administrators are mere actors who perform the task of implementing the regulations of the government.
The Federal Bureau of Prisons which operates under the Department of Justice comprises of various institutions, regional offices, staff training centers as well as community correction offices and houses over 218,107 federal offenders as of August, 2012. The BOP facilities currently comprises of 177,042 prisoners while those confined in privately managed security facilities totaled 28,507.
As a result, domestic systems of administrative accountability through law are being increasingly sidestepped. (Berkley 65)
Global administrative law comprises the mechanisms, principles, and practices that promote or otherwise affect the accountability of diverse global administrative bodies, in particular by ensuring that they meet adequate standards of transparency, participation, reasoned decision, and legality, and by providing effective review of the rules and decisions made.
Closed model calls for more supervision and top-down hierarchy.
As the news paper report goes, the closed model would require stringent supervision on such organizations (the alternative medicine centre, in this case) by the civic and police authorities. As the
What Wilson was trying to imply was that the daily running of the administration could separate itself from the day-to-day involvement of politics. Today, this dichotomy has brought a lot of debate. Others say that it is not possible while others think it is
Wilson believed that administrative decision should be made without any involvement of politics. There have been arguments over the connection between the administration and politics for years and years and it continues to be a
Moreover, the reward system in the public sector focuses more on seniority, public organizations have to comply with civil service rules, there is a higher level of accountability in public organizations and there are no
a of constitutional republic can be traced back to ancient Rome and started a result of constitutional revolution between the ordinary Roman citizens and the aristocracy for better representation.
The major difference between a democracy and a constitutional republic lies in
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