Free

Against the patenting genes - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The point of concern in this debate is more about a need to equip medical research centers with the ability and resources to freely conduct research and come up with solutions to health issues than about financially compensating the private investors in medical research. Gene…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.6% of users find it useful
Against the patenting genes
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Against the patenting genes"

Against patenting of genes The point of concern in this debate is more about a need to equip medical research centers with the ability and resourcesto freely conduct research and come up with solutions to health issues than about financially compensating the private investors in medical research. Gene patent should not be legalized so that more knowledge can be created for the benefit of mankind.
Myriad Genetics Ic. (Myriad) used the patents to determine the typical nucleotide sequence of the genes (supremecourt.gov, 2012). This knowledge enabled Myriad to introduce such medical tests that would be useful in the detection of genes’ mutations in patients. This is essential for assessing the predisposition of the patients to cancer.
Legalization of gene patents is regressive not only to the medical research but also to the independence and growth of research centers or countries other than the one to which patent protection has been provided. It is, indeed, sad, that “some genetic tests can’t be done in Canada because U.S. companies hold patents on the tests and the genes and have threatened legal action if the patents are violated by doing the tests in Canada, rather than the U.S.” (CBC News, 2014).
Legalization of gene patents has resulted in patenting of a significant number of genes. There are total 30,000 genes in humans and 8,000 of them have already been patented (Wagner, 2009). This means that the number of genes that can be tested upon for identification of cure for diseases has been reduced significantly. So gene patenting should not be allowed.
References:
CBC News. (2014). U.S. gene patents: Patient care stymied in Canada, hospital claims.
Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/u-s-gene-patents-patient-care-stymied-in-canada-hospital-claims-1.2820211.
supremecourt.gov. (2012). Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal
Circuit. Retrieved from http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/12pdf/12-398_1b7d.pdf.
Wagner, L. (2009). Human Genes Should Not Be Patented. UVA Lawyer. Retrieved from
http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/alumni/uvalawyer/spr09/humangenes.htm. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Against the patenting genes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/social-science/1669050-against-the-patenting-genes
(Against the Patenting Genes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words)
https://studentshare.org/social-science/1669050-against-the-patenting-genes.
“Against the Patenting Genes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/social-science/1669050-against-the-patenting-genes.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Against the patenting genes

Candidate Cancer Meiosis Genes

...stops functioning genetic instability may result that may in turn cause metastasis. The progression of tumours is associated with mutations that inactivate tumour suppressor genes and activate ocogenes. Different cancers have different kinds of mutations although patients may show the same symptoms. This indicates that mutations occur randomly but because the number of tumours or genetic lesions seen is limited, it has been deduced that “there is only a limited number of ways in which our defenses against cancer can be breached” (Alberts, Johnson and Lewis, et al. 2002). 2.2. Causes of Cancer As discussed, molecular abnormalities result in mutations in certain genes that in turn cause...
24 Pages(6000 words)Literature review

Genes

...? About Genes About Genes DNA is the basic form in which instructions and information on the characteristics of any organism is stored in the cells. This information and instructions for the synthesis of the proteins is stored in DNA molecule in form of a sequence of nucleotides, including Adenine, Thymine, guanine and cytosine; commonly abbreviated as A, T, G and C respectively, in a given order. The sequence of these four nucleotide bases on a DNA molecule determine the sequence of amino acids on a given protein, that is, the genetic information on the DNA molecule provides the basis for the synthesis of proteins in a given organism. Starr and Taggart (2006) point out that all living organisms accomplish two key features... via two...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Organism patenting in Africa

...? Organism Patenting in Africa Introduction Patenting occurs as a result of the invention or the discovery of something that will lead to the development in biology. Patenting can be a composition, a method for obtaining or using either one or more products that will lead to discovery of something new. Most of those patented are natural biological substances. From long ago, there have been many times that scientists have tried patenting methods, and after some time in the 1970s, there was a breakthrough when scientists started using their patenting methods on certain biological inventions. They practiced these methods using DNA that was...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

MAGE genes

...restricted to male tissues as they rise to fixation. The CT antigen genes on the X chromosome are also notable for the expansion of various gene families by duplication. This degree of duplication is perhaps an indication of selection in males for increased copy number. In this context, it was noted that the MAGE family has independently expanded on the X chromosome in both human and mouse lineages. Many antigens recognized by autologous T lymphocytes have been identified on human melanoma. Melanoma patients usually mount a spontaneous T cell response against their tumor. But at some point, the responder T cells become ineffective, probably because of a local immuno-suppressive process...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Gene Patenting

...of not having access to genes and their related products. Gene patents are allowed because it provides benefits to the patentee. The gene patents can provide researchers with an incentive and encourage them to undertake research. The researches undertaken to conduct studies are expensive, and researchers need a way through which they can cover up for the expenses they bore to conduct the study. Licensing fees and patents provide a means for research companies to regain some of the money they have spent on research (Hill, pp221-259). In this way patents can prevent and protect against market failure and...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Nepotism: Genes and relationships

...141528 PAGE TOPIC OF REPORT: NEPOTISM, GENES AND RELATIONSHIPS PSYCHOLOGY A research report of an investigation with practicals based on the hypothesis of Evolutionary Psychology with assessed results, that close relationships are influenced by principles of genetic variations and fitness maximization and not just by the culture and social learning. Practical results are based on the questionnaire about the relationships with the grandparents set against a number of hypotheses. This answers how affectional ties and dyad specific relationships influence the younger generations and their social behaviour and how nepotism plays an important part in the psychological and social make-up of an individual....
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

GENETICS

...development would also be affected if patent stacking is allowed. This would result in large biotech private companies taking over the genetic markets. The main ethical issue that is creating dissension, is the question that, how can one get to own a part of life and nature? Patent holders are getting right to own DNA fragments, the very constituent of life. It is against all ethics to own life as in part organisms or full organisms, as their properties. This is the core issue, which all those who stand against patenting of gene in any form, are fighting for. Cloning in animals and humans Cloning biologically refers to exact...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

The Ethics of Genes

...Genetics-The Ethics of Genes The developed possibilities introduced by genetics have come also with new questions about what is either right or wrong. For example, genetic testing is, as par now, optional. However, a number of medical tests that begins as optional become less optional with time. The question is who should decide the time genetic tests are to be done. Should the insurance firms or staff have access to the results? If the tests of prenatal genetic become common, does this mean that people with unique genetic traits, predispositions or diseases suffer from increased discrimination? Will the so called designer babies be part of the norm? For some people, the opportunities given by genetic testing and the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Genes

...Genetics Homework ID Number Questions The functions ascribed to the genetic material are replication, expression, information storage and mutation. What does each of these terms mean in the context of genetics? (3 points) Gene replication refers to process by which the cell DNA duplicates itself before a cell divides. This duplication is aimed at separating the complementary base pairs for the cell to produce a copy of itself. Gene expression refers to the process through which the encoded data from a gene is utilized to produce a functional product. The ability of a cell to perform many of its secretion functions is tied on the millions of genes that are expressed in a...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Regulatory Genes

...How Regulatory Genes Direct Vertebrate Development Introduction The Lhx3, a homeodomain transcription factor is known to be important in the formation of pituitary gland and anterior pituitary secreting cell type’s specification (Parker et al., 2000). There are two forms of LHX3 mutations that have been identified in humans; they include, firstly, an intragenic deletion that results to truncated proteins that have no DNA binding domain. Secondly, a missense mutation that involves changing of tyrosine to cysteine (Parker et al., 2000). In order to determine if mutations in the LXH3 gene have an effect on the LHX3 ability to bind to DNA promoter and reporter genes, the plasmids containing wild type and mutant type were constructed... then...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Against the patenting genes for FREE!

Contact Us