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s are both the librarians and the library users, meaning that the study does not seek to obtain a sample from an unknown general population, which would in turn require that the sample is generalized to represent the entire population (McCabe, 2005).
While the challenges facing funding and sustainability of library service is a common challenge for different libraries in different states, each library has its own unique challenges, which may not be generalized. Therefore, the aim of the study is not to obtain a representative sample of the population, but a sample that is unique to the Clayton County Library System (CCLS), in terms of exposure, usage and experiences. This is because; it is only such a sample that would be in a position to give both comprehensive and reliable information regarding the library. Thus, instead of seeking to have a sample population that can be inferred to represent the general population, the main target of the study is to delve into the intricacies of the experiences of the librarians and the library users, as a means of reaching an informed conclusion regarding the sustainability of Clayton County Library, so that a diversified structure of funding can then be recommended, based on this information. Therefore, since the study is neither seeking a representative sample nor targeting generalization, the application of the purposive sampling strategy under non-probability sampling method is recommended for the study.
The selection of a representative sample for this study is important, to ensure that the information gathered through the interviewing process is not biased. However, this is a secondary requirement as far as this study is concerned, considering that the main objective of the case study is to obtain as detailed information as possible, regarding the experiences of both the librarians and the library users. Obtaining experiences does not pose any major risk of biases, considering that sensitive information regarding the
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A qualitative method appears to be fit for this initial study as it is intended to be descriptive, explanatory and discovery-oriented. The sampling would be purposive and include patients who had been discharged after knee arthroscopy surgery within six months and are at their residences in a naturalistic setting.
However there is a third approach known as the mixed method study that combines the approaches of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Quantitative research is sometimes termed as positivist or empiricist approach that entails the systematic investigation of different phenomena through the use of statistical and computational techniques (Bockmon & Rieman 1987)..
Contextually, qualitative research is defined as a method of investigation engaged in certain different academic orders, usually in social sciences along with market trends among others. Qualitative research intends to collect in-depth knowledge of human activities as well as reasons behind such performance (Ospina, 2004).
However many managers face a lot of pressure to shift from earnings management to fraudulent management behaviors. Using qualitative research methods this paper examines earnings management continuum from legitimacy to fraud by using a case study. Key words: earnings, fraud, management and qualitative.
The study was conducted in a Teaching Hospital located in United Kingdom where 160 outpatients who met the DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder were recruited for the survey. Patients who were currently unstable, using psychotropic drugs and did not understand English were excluded from the study.
The research questions for this study are the following: 1. To what extent does leadership effectiveness affect workers task performance? 2. What is the relationship between effective leadership and worker job satisfaction? 3. How does leadership effectiveness affect the self-confidence among nurses?
The methodology used by the researcher appropriately distinguishes the course of an initially hypothetical study into fruition through a comprehensive understanding of the goal of the research which correlates to the results. The choice between using quantitative and qualitative instruments in scientific research had been historically lenient to a quantitative process rather than a qualitative measurement.
But, many researchers found qualitative research as mere concept which has hardly any implicational value in order to address business problems. Generally, companies use survey method as part of quantitative research in order to address business problems and often ignore importance of qualitative research due to lack of understanding of the concepts working behind qualitative research (Johnson & Duberley, 2000).
School of Public Health, Gothenburg; and Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of International Health (IHCAR), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Anna-Berit Ransjo-Arvidson PhD RNM DNE; Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of