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In fact, Norway has close political and economic ties with the EU (regjeringen, 2011). For instance, according to regjeringen (2011), Norway and the EU are members of the European Economic Area (EEA, signed in 1994). Moreover, the EEA agreement regulates the relationship between Norway and EU (regjeringen, 2011). In addition, Norway and the European Union signed Schengen agreement and they are partners in the Iceland and Liechtenstein (regjeringen, 2011). The foundations of Norway-EU trade relations were led by the EFTA (European Free Trade Association), which was established in 1960 (regjeringen, 2011). The EU in collaboration with Norway participate in the fields of justice and home affairs, climatic changes, foreign policies, research policies and in regulation of energy consumption (regjeringen, 2011). Increase in cooperation of Norway with European Union dramatically affects more aspects of both Norwegian and the EU community and economy (regjeringen, 2011). Norway is a major supplier of natural gas supplying up to 24% of the total gas imports, (regjeringen, 2011). Norway has contributed to the EU budget € 230 million in 2010 (regjeringen, 2011). In addition, according to regjeringen (2011), the overall amount of Norway’s export to the EU is 80.7%. In order to understand the importance of the EU for Norway, one should not only look at the EEA Agreement, but analyze the entire structure of agreements. For example, the Schengen Agreement or the many other agreements between Norway and the EU that concern Justice, Security policy, fisheries and agriculture (regjeringen, 2012). On the other hand, Norway persistent refrains from joining the EU for various reasons, even though accession to the EU would bring new insights and new opportunities for Norway across diverse areas. Ladegaard (2012) states that, accordingly to
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Thus, during the last eight years, the European Union has expanded from 15 to 27 states. Given that the process of expansion is properly implemented, it promotes the transformation of many European countries into democratic and prosperous states. However, many people still consider the process of EU further enlargement to be harmful for European welfare.
This is different from the concept of indirect effect which refers to the reliance on EU sources of law in the interpretation of national laws.2 Direct effect is also different from direct applicability as the latter refers to sources of international law that are directly applicable without the necessity of implementation into national law.3 Horizontal direct effect, or the “incidental effect” occurs when EU law has direct effect between private parties within the EU.4 The direct effect of EU primary law such as non-discrimination within the original treaty will have direct effect between private parties.5 Direct effect is referred to as the principle of effete utile and is designed to
United Kingdom is European states, other than this, the economies in European States are closely interlinked thus the legal matters arising are heavily intertwined and largely interlinked. Further, the legal issues involving these states are largely influenced by the EU Treaties and the Conventional Human Rights of Europe1.
There is quite an elongated roll of high historical characters, which, in pretty diverse ways, trailed an idea of integrated Europe. These personalities are Charlemagne, Napolen, Charles V, and Metternich. Incidentally, even the infamous and notorious personages as Adolf Hitler, did intend to deliver a wicked thought of one Europe.
Chabot stated that this revolution involves the solidification of a European market of goods and services, major structural changes in countries plagued by fiscal negligence, and the reorganization of monetary policy in some of the world’s most advanced industrialized economies. The “European Single Market” is “the world’s largest domestic market”.
he Common Agricultural Policy, Competition Policy, Science and Technology Policy, Regional Policy and Social Policy and their resultant outcomes are described briefly in the following sections.
The CAP of the European Union has undergone several significant reforms since the
The European Union has various activities including the most important of all – a common single market. This market consists of a common agricultural policy, common fisheries policy, customs union and single currency adopted by twelve of the twenty-five member states.
Automated teller machines, web and telephone based technologies were used to enable customers to do their banking without actually coming down to the bank. This meant that the bank had successfully driven its customers to low
Globally, countries and continents are engaging in bilateral or multi-lateral trade partnerships for the benefit of its trading partners. The need for the formation of economic and trade unions is prompted by the fact that these countries have different forms of economic and resource endowments thereby creating relative and comparative trade advantages.
Unions are democratic organizations or group that works for the betterment of the employees at the workplace. Union has two objectives; controlling the labor process and managing rewards of work.
A single employee if raises voice then it is unlikely that his or her
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