Nobody downloaded yet

Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation - Literature review Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Summary
This essay "Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation" analyses three conditions for inferring cause: 1) contiguity between the effect and the cause; 2) precedence of the cause in relation with the effect, and 3) the constant presence of the cause whenever the effect is obtained…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.1% of users find it useful
Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation"

Download file to see previous pages For Cook and Campbell (1979), however, the most significant contribution of John Stuart Mill to the theory of causality pertains to his notions of the criteria, principles, or “methods” of agreement, differences, and concomitant variation. The principle of agreement “states that an effect will be present when the cause is present” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). The principle of difference “states that the effect will be absent when the cause is absent” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). Finally, the principle of concomitant variation “implies that when both of the above relationships are observed, causal inferences will be all stronger since certain other interpretations of the co-variation between the cause effects can be ruled out” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 182). According to Cook and Campbell (1979, p. 183), “at its core , the Method of Concomitant Variation involves examining a somewhat complex pattern of data in order to induce whether a treatment is associated with an effect and whether some rival causal explanations can be ruled out on the basis of when the treatment and effect are and are not related.” Cook and Campbell (1979, p. 183) pointed out that “the concept of a control group is implicit here and is clearly central in Mill’s thinking about the cause.”
In 1913, Bertrand Russell “looked to physics and astronomy of his day as the most mature sciences, and he noted their lack of concern with unobservables and explicitness and parsimony of the functional relationships that physicists sought to test” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 172-173). However, Russell had asked that asked whether the concept of cause continues to be relevant given that cause “is not implied by functional relationships of the mathematical form” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 173). The Russell viewpoint is positivist “rejecting unobservables (like cause), and seeking to establish explicit functional laws between continuously measured variables in a closed system” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 173). Positivists like Russell believe that “causation is unnecessary because it is unobservable” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 175).
The essentialist viewpoint “argue that the term cause should only be used to refer to variables that explain a phenomenon in the sense that these variables, when taken together, are both necessary and sufficient for the effect to occur” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177). The essentialists “equates cause with a constellation of variables that necessarily, inevitably and infallibly results in the effect” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177). In contrast, those “who restrict cause to observable necessary and sufficient conditions (or sufficient conditions that operate when all the necessary conditions are met) reject as causes those factors which are known to bring about effects sometimes, but not always” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 177).
For Cook and Campbell (1979, p. 184), the view articulated by Karl Popper in 1959 is among the “more contemporary.” Popper emphasized the necessity of “basing knowledge on ruling out alternative explanations of phenomena so as to remain, the researcher hopes, with only a single conceivable explanation” (Cook and Campbell 1979, p. 184). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation Literature review, n.d.)
Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation Literature review. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/social-science/1397654-research-methodology
(Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation Literature Review)
Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation Literature Review. https://studentshare.org/social-science/1397654-research-methodology.
“Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation Literature Review”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/social-science/1397654-research-methodology.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
ca
carminelakin added comment 4 months ago
Student rated this paper as
I had an issue with a essay types of works. All until I came across this website and this particular essay. Even though "Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation" is far from my studies, the structure is so great that I use it all the time as an example for my own works.

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation

Human Experimentation

...? Human Experimentation Human medical experimentation is a form of torture that is not only gruesome and illegal but is a practice that has been kept in the dark for many years. It is a procedure that did not simply violate human rights, but in fact, it defied every sort of right possessed by humans, be it right to live or right of consent before experimentation. The sad part is that it has been adopted by medical practitioners and scientists in a full fervency since a long time. This paper focuses on this most heinous type of torture, with a brief explanation on how it has been practiced since the late nineteenth and throughout the twentieth century. It includes the historical...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Animal Experimentation

...October 17th Animal Experimentation The issue of animal testing draws some strong sentiments aimed at thebenefits and demerits of the practice. For this reason, this paper aims at examining the available attitudes relating to animal testing and the measure that should be taken to treat animals humanely. Animal testing should be conducted following its immense health benefits towards humans in relation to assisting preterm babies and children. In this light, animal experiments have helped to come up with a solution to ensure that preterm babies survive despite their weak bodies and health. This is due to experiments conducted on lambs using steroids that have proved the strengthening properties of steroids on their lungs....
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Causal analysis

... Readers Will Always Be Able To Relate To the Lottery and Be Scared Introduction Winning a lottery is a dream envisaged by many. On reading the tittle, the first thing that comes to the reader’s mind is luck and reward. Ironically, in Jackson’s story, winning the lottery means losing your life. The Lottery is a blend of horror, convention, and irony. The villagers are closely knit but their actions display brutality, hypocrisy, and evilness that is scaring. Members of one family are supposed to protect each other. On the contrary, they join with the rest to stone one of their own in obedience of an outdated and heartless tradition. A murderous event appears normal to the villagers. This depicts the innate evil of human nature... Readers Will...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Causal Argument

... Pollution One of the most formidable dangers confronting mankind in the modern world is environmental deterioration. The pursuit of industrial and technological progress has created a myriad of environmental issues that hinder the efforts aimed at promoting the welfare of mankind. This situation has worsened to an extent of now exposing all living organisms to the incumbent hazard of air, water and soil pollution (Shafi 2). Thus, the pursuit of industrial and technological advancement has caused air, water and soil pollution that has impacted negatively on flora and fauna and further caused humans to invest in various intervention approaches. Causes of Pollution As noted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, pollution... Pollution...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Animal Experimentation

...?Abdulaziz Alzahrani (Aziz) EAP 150 Dr. Sara Schwab December 3rd, Animal Experimentation During the second century, Galen, a Greek physician known as the father of vivisection, conducted one of the early experiments on animals when he digested a pig to describe the spinal cord and the brain functions. In the 1620s, William Harvey, an English physician, conducted his well-known experiment on animals, which was considered later to be the first experiment to provide a full demonstration of blood circulation. The William Harvey’s experiment empowered the use of animals in medical investigation by showing the significance of vivisection in comparative physiological investigation (). As a result, The use of animals in...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Animal Experimentation

...ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION (A CRITICAL ANALYSIS) Introduction: The practice of testing on animals goes back many centuries. In A.D 100's, a Greek physician Galen proved that veins carry blood and not air as it was previously believed. This event was recorded as the first known use of animals in medical research. Today, animals are still being experimented for a variety of reasons. For example, they are used to test new drugs and medical procedures, which determine whether it is beneficial to humans, or harmful. Other uses include learning the harmful effects of a new product such as a cosmetic, food additive, or an insecticide. Some people believe that we have no right whatsoever to so mercilessly exploit other species for...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Experimentation

...Experimentation as Means of Discovery Throughout the ages, experimentation has been used by many as a way to make new discoveries. The use of experimentation is used to validate the previously spoken hypothesis by either proving, or disproving, that which was spoken to begin with. The most common usage of experimentation is performed by those who are in the sciences as a stepping stone towards instrumental innovations, such as the creation of medicines and vaccines to heal the ailing and sick. It is these sorts of experiments which have enabled countless people to live happier and more prosperous lives throughout the ages. In keeping with the idea of scientific study,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Vaccine Experimentation

...Much of what is currently done in vaccine production is based upon years of research on immunology using mouse models. As scientists soon discovered with the advent of highly sophisticated laboratory equipment and techniques, this misrepresent the processes that underlie the human immune response against diseases. As well, laboratories also do not share findings in the community for fears of their patents being stolen. This limits the potential exponential vaccine development. Moreover, our current vaccines have been limited to using just the humoral immunity and subsequently treating just infectious diseases. What about the lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular problems that causes most of the worldwide mortality nowadays... of what is...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Human experimentation

...Human Experimentation al Affiliation Human Experimentation In one’s research on the history of human experimentation, it was revealed that humans had been used for experiments and research as early as the 6th century B.C. where it was reported that young Jewish prisoners were used in meat and vegetable experiments, as revealed in the Books of Daniel, until documented 2001 cases (Sharav, n.d., par. 1). Another study evaluated the history of human experimentation across two time frames: before that Nazi regime and after it (Kalechofsky, n.d.). Recently, there have been news reports alledging illegal human experiement reportedly conducted by the Environmental Protection...
2 Pages(500 words)Term Paper

Inference paper

... Inference Paper: Transcendental Idealism Introduction In defining a priori knowledge, Kant s that it is held independently of human experience. He also defines synthetic judgments as those that are distinct from their subjective nature, to which they relate due to real connections that exist externally to the concept itself. As a result, these judgments are really informative, although they need reference to outside principles for justification. Synthetic a priori judgments, therefore, provide much of human knowledge’s basis. Applying synthetic a priori judgment to mathematics, Kant claims that: “formal intuition is the essential property of our sensibility by means of which alone objects are given to us, and if this sensibility... is not...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Literature review on topic Causal Inference and the Language of Experimentation for FREE!

Contact Us