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'Level of processing' model of memory - Math Problem Example

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Eysenck (1974) conducted an experiment to test Craik & Lockart's proposed "level of processing" model of memory. That is the degree to which verbal material is remembered by a person is a function of the degree to which it was processed when it was initially presented…
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Level of processing model of memory
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Download file to see previous pages Eysenck tested this model to see if it could explain reported differences between young and old people in their ability to recall verbal material. Eysenck predicted that there would be an interaction between age and recall condition, more specifically that younger participants would recall more words when using deeper levels of processing.
30 subjects between 55 and 65 years of age, and 30 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age were allocated to one of three groups - two incidental learning groups and one intentional group. Each group was presented with a list of 27 words and their recall was tested later. One group was asked to count the letters in each word; one group had to read each word and think of a word that rhymed with it. Neither of these two groups was told that they would later have to recall these words. Finally, the intentional learning group was asked to read through the list and memorize it for later recall.
The aims of this study are to investigate whether different learning or age groups have an effect on recall ability and whether there is an interaction between the two groups (age and learning). You must use appropriate ANOVA techniques to investigate and interpret the given information and to complete the tasks given on the following page.
From the table above, it is evident that the young are able to recall many words than the old. The young can recall some 11 words with a standard deviation of 6.077 while the old can recall some 8 words with a standard deviation of 2.5. The ability to recall among the young people is a bit varying than the recalling ability of the old people.


Table 2: Total number of words recalled per Group
Level of processing
Mean
N
Std. Deviation
Counting
6.65
20
1.182
Rhyming
7.00
20
1.170
Intentional
15.15
20
4.511
Total
9.60
60
4.809

Intentional group has the highest recalling ability than the other groups. Participants in this group can recall 15 words with a standard deviation of 4.5. Rhyming groups recalls 7 words with a standard deviation of 1.1 while counting group recalls 7 words with a standard deviation of 1.2. On variation, the intentional group has the most variations in terms of recalling than the other groups.












Table 3: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
1254.600
5
250.920
123.403
.000
Intercept
5529.600
1
5529.600
2719.475
.000
AGE
112.067
1
112.067
55.115
.000
GROUP
925.300
2
462.650
227.533
.000
AGE * GROUP
217.233
2
108.617
53.418
.000
Error
109.800
54
2.033


Total
6894.000
60



Corrected Total
1364.400
59



R Squared = .920 (Adjusted R Squared = .912)

Both the age and the group are significant in determining the number of words one can recall at 95% level of significance. Further, age and group have significant interaction with each other.

Figure 1
From figure 1 above, it is evident that the young had the least ability to recall among the counting group than the old age. However, both Rhyming and intentional had the highest recalling capability than the same groups of old the age. Among the old, both counting and rhyming have the same recalling capacity.


Table 4: ANOVA of total number of words recalled per Age

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
112.067
1
112.067 ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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