Bt can very well stand for biotechnology as the two have been tied closely by science over the past two decades, these two letters actually stand for something that farmers across the globe have known to be a very reliable anti-pest tool - Bacillus thuringiensis…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Download file to see previous pages
Uses of Bt insect resistance in agriculture
This remarkable finding which happened in 1911 was not the first time Bt went under close inspection; in the Far East, ten years before, a Japanese scientist who was investigating the almost instantaneous death of silkworms first discovered it.
More than a century has now passed since Bt's discovery, and for more than half of it, Bt has been used as a natural insecticide, being sprayed onto crops. (Shelton 2008) But just how does Bt work in the first place'
Unlike Dichlorodiphenyltricloroethane, which has been known to be a three-letter acronym for the words notorious killer because of its infamousness in inflicting damage to organisms it should not, Bt is not a contact poison. Bt has to be eaten first before it can poison any unsuspecting insect. B. thuringiensis has spores which contain crystal proteins or cry proteins. When ingested by an insect, the active insecticidal crystal protein or (ICP) breaks down in the insect's gut and releases a toxin called delta-endotoxin. This delta-endotoxin then reacts with certain receptors on the intestinal lining and makes pores causing the leakage of its contents and paralyzation of the insect's digestive system resulting to insect death. The killing is a slow process that may take hours or even days. (Shelton 2008) However, it must be noted that because of the paralysis of the insect’s digestive system, the insect soon stops eating. Immediately dead or not, the goal of saving the crops from mass mastication of unwanted living forms is definitely achieved. (Office of Biotechnology at Iowa State University 2008)
Bt may not be as fast a killer as the conventional insecticides are, but in this ever health conscious world, speed is not the only thing to consider. Synthetic insecticides such as those whose active ingredient is DDT have been banned in many countries and for a number of good reasons. And it is because of such reasons why many farmers choose Bt over it; human safety, of course, is the primary concern. (Bassein 2008)
As mentioned, Bt has been used for more than 50 years now as an effective insecticide. So far, there are no reports of it harming anyone. And the underlying reason according to experts is the fact that Bt toxins are toxic only to certain insects; truly, this is good news for bees and beekeepers alike. The rationale' The receptors which are present in the insects' guts are not found in most other organisms, in mammals, and most importantly, in humans. (Federal Ministry of Education and Research 2008)
The different strains of B. thuringiensis produce different delta-endotoxins, each "catering" to a specific order of insect. The most common of Bt's cry proteins are those that belong to the Cry1 class which are toxic to lepidopterous insects (e.g. moths such as the European corn borer, butterflies). It is also the most active ingredient in most Bt-based commercial insecticides today. Other proteins belong to the Cry2 class which unlike their Cry1 counterparts, produce a single, smaller crystal per cell. This class is toxic to insects belonging in both the Lepidoptera and Diptera (e.g. flies and mosquitoes) orders. There is also the Cry3 class which poisons the coleopterous (e.g. beetles like the
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Uses of Bt insect resistance in agriculture Essay”, n.d.)
Uses of Bt insect resistance in agriculture Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/science/1531817-uses-of-bt-insect-resistance-in-agriculture
(Uses of Bt Insect Resistance in Agriculture Essay)
Uses of Bt Insect Resistance in Agriculture Essay. https://studentshare.org/science/1531817-uses-of-bt-insect-resistance-in-agriculture.
“Uses of Bt Insect Resistance in Agriculture Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1531817-uses-of-bt-insect-resistance-in-agriculture.
Resistance The gendered and racist nature of violence has been a topic of interest for sociologists since the discourses connecting identity and politics had emerged. One definition for violence has been that it “entails acts of physical coercion or their threat” (Jacobs, Jacobson and Marchbank, 2000, p.2).
GMOs are comprised of various genetic characteristics that especially help in developing the quality of the plants and protect them from pests at the same time. Various sorts of GMO crops encompass Bt-Potato, Bt-Corn and Roundup Ready soybeans among others.
Also known as biotech food, genetically modified foods are derived from genetically modified animals and plants. Michael Pollan (p.35) said in ‘In Defense of Food’ that genetic engineering techniques are used to introduce changes in their DNA and give them specific advantages over conventional stuff.
The author states that since 1996 the global area planted with genetically modified (GM) crops has consistently increased each year. In 2005 the estimated global area of GM crops was 90 million hectares with an annual growth rate of 11% compared to 2004. Today GM crops are grown by more than 8.5 million farmers in 21 countries.
This is something that they will never be short of, if the right policies and reforms are introduced within this sector. There are many questions which need to be answered with the help of these reforms. Although agriculture seems to
tion in the field, to crossing or mating plants and then selection of superior lines, and currently, use of molecular techniques to genetically engineer crops for increased yield performance.
v. Better pest and disease management strategies that include the use of contact
These activities have been in practice from ancient times. So no matter how one puts it, biotechnology has been a lucrative field of biology for mankind. Biotechnology is the branch of biology that deals with the application of living
Additionally, the insect has causes negative significant negative economic impacts. According to Sparks, Michaels and Daniels (2013), defoliation caused by the insect is a cause of a major concern especially in the Cork Oak Forest. There are fears that the feeding
On a wider scope, it is the act of farming using the principles of ecology, entailing the inter-relationships between the organisms and their environment. Sustainable agriculture goes hand in hand with food footprint based on ecological footprint. Food footprint
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Uses of Bt insect resistance in agriculture"
with a personal 20% discount.