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The Next Generation of Insects and Insecticides - Essay Example

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Insects are very productive group of organisms known for its ecological as well as economic contributions. However, some insect species are also popular as agricultural pests that cause damage to 30% of crops all over the world (Altieri, Nicholls and Fritz, 2005, p.1: par 1) and may also harm human species…
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The Next Generation of Insects and Insecticides
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"The Next Generation of Insects and Insecticides"

Download file to see previous pages Insects are organisms which are considered most numerous in a natural ecology. They exist as either beneficial or harmful, depending on the nature of its ecology. Early of the 19th century, certain species of arthropods like mosquitoes, have been regarded as causative agents of some important diseases and the discovery of one cheap but effective insecticide called dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT in the year 1940s was considered as a large breakthrough in the management of vector-borne illnesses (Roosendall, 1997, p.1: par 1-2).
most productive. Before, insects like pollinator bees could achieve the pollination needs of orchards, grounds with sunflower, berry patches and pumpkins. Today, several farms are large, with less nearby habitat, and usually rely on honey bees to pollinate the crops and pesticides to limit the weeds and pest insects (US Agroforestry Notes, 2007, p. 1: par 1).
Insecticides are chemically formulated substances that consist of wide range toxic ingredients for target insects and when these substances are absorbed through the insects' exoskeletal structures, it can result to death ( p. 1: par 4).
On the other hand, there are already documentations on insect resistance to DDT since year 1447 and up to the present, scientists are continually investigating on mechanisms of how insects genetically and behaviorally respond to applications of insecticides.


Public Concerns on Insects and Insecticide Use
During 1950s and early 1960s, several countries organized to restrain or eradicate vector-borne diseases such as Malaria, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease through the introduction and use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane or DDT. At first, the programs were successful and some countries have proven to control the vectors (insects that transmit diseases), but, in most countries, the success is short termed and they have observed that the insects developed resistance to DDT which opted people to use more expensive chemicals (Roosendall, 1997, p.1: par 3).
In North America, West Nile Virus (WNV) has been a serious problem since 1999. The virus is usually transmitted by adult mosquitoes. Thus, in areas of Canada and throughout United States, insecticides are applied to troubleshoot the outbreak of WNV which
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consequently resulted in several public concerns, particularly on the risk of insecticide use. In 2005, World Health Organization prompted to evaluate the human-health risks for WNV, health effects from WNV infection and assessed potential population risks among human subgroups throughout WNV disease outbreak scenario. Results indicate that the level of human-health risks due to household exposure to mosquito insecticides are low and will not likely to go beyond levels of concern. Moreover, results indicate that, according to human health criteria, the risks from WNV is more than the risks from harmful effects or exposure to mosquito insecticides (Environ Health Perspective, 2006, 114: 366-372).
Similarly, there are also insecticides from most pet products. Organophosphates found in these ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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