Seven electroneutral cation-coupled cotransporters have been found in the physiological systems of mammals to date (Delpire, E., 2000). These, together with two orphan members, belong to the SLC12 gene family (Gamba, G., 2005) and cloning of the cDNA encodes the different members…
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As mentioned earlier partially, the NCC and the NKCC2 cotransporters are renal-specific in action while the other five are more widely found and evident throughout the central nervous system (Delpire, E., 2000). The and solute carriers move through plasma membranes always accompanied by in equal proportions in a 1:1 stoichiometry (Gamba, G., 2005).
Functionally, these membrane proteins are active in transepithelial ion absorption and secretion, cell volume regulation and setting intracellular anions below or above their electrochemical potential equilibriums (Gamba, G., 2005), among other possible functions. The last activity, specially appertaining to KCC2, is of special interest to this study. The last decade has seen much advance in their study and most of the knowledge that is available on them has become so within this short period.
These family members are also extensively involved in the pharmacology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular and neuronal regions of mammalian anatomy. Loop diuretics and thiazide diuretics that are some of the most prescribed drugs in the world target some of the family members while genetic mutations that inactivate three specific members cause inherited diseases like Bartter's, Gitelman's and Anderman's (Gamba, G., 2005). It should be noted here that all the functional-structural characteristics of the above seven cotransporters have not been comprehensively discovered and described. This is amply evident from G. Gamba's extensive 2005 paper investigating comprehensively the hitherto unrevealed functional-structural characteristics of the seven. Thus, that deficiency lends purpose to the dissertation this paper is an introduction to again, specifically in relation to KCC2, the particular potassium-coupled chloride cotransporter this project is investigating.
True cultured cell lines derived of purely neuronal origin are of immense value to biochemical and molecular study of neurons and their diverse functional implications together with other neurotransmission elements like the KCC cotransporters in this instance. This is so because primary neuronal cells thrive indifferently in cultures with low reproducibility and often are found mixed with other types of cells not of interest to the particular research at hand (Wang and Oxford, 2000). There are some specific neuronal differentiated phenotype exhibiting cell lines available to the researcher such as the PC12 cells, the P19 cells and the MN9D cells, among others, but these are not purely derived of the CNS and
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“Molecular Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1519656-molecular-identity.
One’s identity is frequently theorized either as an individual (personal identity) or as a group (social identity) (Cote & Levine, 2002, p. 23). Personal identity can be described as the organization of one’s perceptions and individual evaluations that are important to them, with regard to individual concepts, image, or self-esteem.Social identity is described as the way an individual is viewed by others (Woodward, 2004, p.
Notably, plant enzymes have some advantages over animals and microbial enzymes since they are available from natural sources with low costs and ease of purification. They widely exist in plant and microbial species, but with poor characterization of structure.
Hamberg and Samuelson were eventually able to clearly elucidate the mechanism of prostaglandin biosynthesis in 1967 (Lawrence, et. al.1999). It became clear, afterwards, that prostaglandins were formed from polyunsaturated fatty acids by a complex reaction involving oxygenation, cyclization and the generation of five chiral centres from an achiral substrate (Lawrence et al 1999).
The new cell line has been introduced hereafter and it is noted here that, significantly, it is one of the few thoroughly neuronal cell lines that can be induced to reversibly differentiate under culture conditions. This property is of special significance to the project as the emphasis of research is on the NKCC1 member, one that is known to have two isoforms - NKCC1a and NKCC1b.
The present study aims to investigate the carcinogenicity of three of these contaminants namely Bis-Chloromethyl ether, Benzene and Styrene.
Epidemiological studies show that approximately 15% of lung cancers in men and 5% of lung cancers in women are caused by such environmental exposures.
The author states that synapsins are considered essential for intense vesicle recruitment during sustained transmission across relevant synapses. They are believed to have multiple functions within presynaptic terminals. Besides recruiting synaptic vesicles (SVs) they also regulate their fusion.
The CAD cell line is specifically neuronal, a characteristic that is very suitable for KCC2 study as the cotransporter too is neuronal specific. Specific association between the culture cell line and the cotransporter has not been made in this paper. That has been left to the dissertation that shall elucidate in full the results of the research experiments.
idences of treatment failures have been reported for this disease, causing rising concern to health care providers and researchers (Blomquist, et al., 2014). The causal organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been reported to exhibit resistance to first line therapeutic drugs and
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