Nobody downloaded yet

Folding and Aggregation - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
This discussion is focused on the nature, structure and functions of proteins, how these are formed and the role played by folding and aggregation in protein and the various interactions that are part of protein functions.
Proteins are a class of macromolecules, also described as polymers of amino acids present in all biological organisms and made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.6% of users find it useful
Folding and Aggregation
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Folding and Aggregation"

Download file to see previous pages The three dimensional structures of proteins aid in delineating protein functions at a molecular level and the structure of proteins are determined usually with X ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy etc. Some structural features of proteins would be necessary to perform certain biochemical functions although multifunctional and structural proteins may have higher number of residues than the average of 300 residues. Large aggregates are formed as a result of folding from protein subunits and actin molecules also assemble into actin filaments.
The protein structure has four distinct features including amino acid sequence of peptide chains as seen in a primary structure, secondary structures which are regular sub structures, such as strands of beta sheet, tertiary structure as seen in the three dimensional structure of a single protein molecule and quaternary structure which represents a complex of polypeptide chains and protein molecules (Copley, 1997; Berg, 2002). Proteins tend to transition between structures to perform the biological functions and this would be known as conformational changes.
The primary structure of proteins with amino acid sequences would be held together by covalent peptide bonds and the extremities of the amino acid chains are known as carboxy terminus (C - terminus) and amino terminus ( N -terminus).
The secondary structures are defined by their patterns of hydrogen bonds between the peptide groups although these bonds are generally not too stable except in conditions when the water concentration is low as in molten globule or fully folded states (Urbanc et al, 2006). The non specific interactions and propensities of amino acids would lead to the formation of molten globules. The tertiary structure shows structurally specific interactions within the protein domain with side chains and hydrogen bonds. The disulfide bonds tend to stabilize the tertiary structures of extra cellular proteins and reduce entropy in an unfolded state. The 4 levels of protein structure are given diagrammatically as follows -

Figure I - From Columbia.edu, biology courses, 2005 handouts
The formation of proteins could be explained as the combination of two amino acids in a condensation reaction and long chains of residues such as amino acids in peptide bond. The sequence of amino acids forms the primary structure of the peptide or protein and is determined by a gene. Within the primary structure, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into mRNA and this is translated by a ribosome and the sequence tends to define the structure and functions of the protein and would be unique to any specific protein. Determining the sequence of nucleotides within the primary structure would actually help in defining the protein (Berg, 2002; Copley, 1997). In the secondary structure, alpha helix and beta sheet saturate the peptide and secondary structures tend to occur most frequently in most proteins. The secondary structure elements tend to have a regular geometry with specific values and are usually folded into a shape with loops and turns (Berg, 2002, Copley, 1997). Tertiary structures are formed with interactions such as hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/science/1512788-folding-and-aggregation
(Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words. https://studentshare.org/science/1512788-folding-and-aggregation.
“Folding and Aggregation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1512788-folding-and-aggregation.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Folding and Aggregation

Techniques available for Resource allocation and aggregation in Construction Project Management

...Techniques available for Resource allocation and aggregation in Construction Project Management This paper gives an overall view of decision making, the importance of Resource management in the process of decision making and discusses a few techniques available for resource allocation and aggregation in construction Project Management. The techniques discussed are Network Critical Path Analysis, Bar Charts, S - Curves) Introduction Resource allocation is one of the most important aspects of Construction Management. Resources are the true sources of the cost of the project. The management responsibilities lies with the proper utilization of available resources and at the same time to ensure that project delay does not occur due... ...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Folding Bicycle

...Folding bicycle is bicycle that can be folded up. They are from 12 inch to 26 inch long, and 16-inch bicycle and 20-inch bicycle are the commonest types. They weigh from 8.5kg to 15kg, much lighter than common bicycles. They can be taken onto bus, into subway and train. You can fold or unfold them in 10 minutes. It is a unique and convenient vehicle, especially for short trips. Nowadays they are also used for entertainment in the park. An advantage of folding bicycle is that, you can fold it up and put it into a bag. It is easy to carry with when you take bus or subway. When you go out for a trip, you can also put it into your package. If you drive out,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Communication Strategy of Dahon Folding Bikes

...Communication Strategy Dahon Folding Bikes INTRODUCTION Personal Mobility. This is Dahon’s philosophy. For 25 years now, it has worked on producing foldable bikes that fit the lifestyles of its target market, giving premium to giving its customers with the freedom to move around with their easy-to-carry bicycle units. It also puts emphasis on being able to contribute to a cleaner environment by producing transportation facilities that do not emit gas, and therefore, do not contribute to pollution. 25 years after it was first established, Dahon continues with its aim to penetrate its target market by creating innovations in their product lines. Dahon’s commitment is to develop new-patented technologies at 20 per year, and looks... Strategy...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

MOVEO folding electric scooter

...that due to the lack of seats, they have opted to have their scooters sent back to the dealers for this reason. It is with this reason that there are customers that have shown interest in the idea of the MOVEO scooter due to the fact that it has a seat and can as well be folded. There are those that have even opted to start and sign consent forms claiming that they would love to own the product on production. The customers claimed that they were interested in the alternative form of transport that is an electric scooter but the lack of a seat made the idea not to settle as well among the customers. Positioning Analysis MOVEO is more than strategically positioned in the sector. This is because it is planning to tap into...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Bandwidth Aggregation: study and comparison of techniques that use bandwidth aggregation to increase bandwidth

...BANDWIDTH AGGREGATION: STUDY AND COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES THAT USE BANDWIDTH AGGREGATION TO INCREASE BANDWIDTH   University/College Date Abstract The demand of high speed internet and fast means of communication are fundamental requirements. One method to increase the speed of networks is discussed in the paper. The concern of paper is based on the learning about the bandwidth and bandwidth aggregation techniques. In the study, bandwidth aggregation techniques are explored to get understanding on bandwidth aggregation. Further comparison is made on the explored techniques, which are being used for bandwidth aggregation to increase bandwidth. ANDWIDTH AGGREGATION: STUDY AND COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUES THAT USE BANDWIDTH AGGREGATION... TO...
14 Pages(3500 words)Literature review

MOVEO folding electric scooter

...MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PLAN FOR THE MOVEO – FOLDING ELECTRIC SCOOTER s s Address Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Executive Summary 3 Company Goals 3 Marketing Goals 3 Target Market 3 Market Positioning 4 Product Positioning 5 Marketing Communication Campaign Goals 6 Promotional objectives 6 Factors Influencing the Marketing Mix 7 Nature of the Product 7 Nature of the Market 8 Stage in the Life Cycle of the Product 9 Pricing 9 Co-ordinated Communication Mix 9 Advertising 9 Print Media 10 Out Door Advertisements 10 Radio Advertising 11 Internet Marketing 11 Sales promotion 11 Evaluation and Control 12 Budget and Implementation 12 Executive Summary This paper presents a marketing communication strategy for the MOVEO...
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment

MOVEO folding electric scooter

...MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PLAN FOR THE MOVEO – FOLDING ELECTRIC SCOOTER s s Address Company Goals MOVEO Limited Liability Company is a subsidiary unit of the Antro Group established in 2008 dedicated to innovation of eco-friendly transport means. The company in 2013 unveiled a new product the MOVEO the folding electric scooter which they intend to begin distributing by June 2014. The company was founded by Zsolt Hegedűs and Géza Hivessy in 2001. The company’s headquarter is based in Őriszentpéter, in the western corner of Hungary (Antro Group). The vision of the company is to lead in the innovation of prototypes making use of environmental friendly technologies and materials that decrease the weight of...
12 Pages(3000 words)Assignment

MOVEO folding electric scooter

...Marketing Communication Plan Introduction The principal objective of marketing communication is to assemble awareness of commerce,the products and the position of the industry in the global market around the world. This is done through customer relations such as press releases, trade show presentations, web sites and brochures. Marketing communication manager has the responsibility of planning a consistent and integrated cross-team that has the sole responsibility of approaching these activities through his or her leadership. The team reinforces the company’s message to the target audience and further motivates customers to buy its products (American Marketing Association, 2001). In marketing of MOVEO, a folding electric...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

MOVEO folding electric scooter

...MOVEO – FOLDING ELECTRIC SCOOTER: MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS PLAN by Executive summary Fiber electric foldable scooter is an exact resemblance of the 50 year back old school scooters tat were used the. For this case, the Antro Group Company from Hungary designed the carbon Moveo foldable scooter to make its way into the today market by offering an alternative, cheap and affordable mode of transport (Monika 2013). The scooter itself weighs about 25kg just like a regular e-bike and is much easier since it does not need parking space (Monika. 2013). The scooter itself can be folded into halves without exposing or contaminating people with grease or oil (Monika. 2013). When folded, the scooter assumes a shape not bigger than a suitcase... the...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Product Design: Folding Carton

...runs during the preliminary stages comprising of a package that will be a folding carton with a three color print. There are mainly two print methods that might be considered for the first smaller runs. First and foremost, the print for the smaller runs ought to be carefully designed such that it looks attractive to the targeted customers. The three color print will be carefully designed such that it appeals to the interests of the targeted customers. The main reason for colourfully designing the print package of the product is to influence the perceptions of the customers towards the product. Quality packaging of the product helps create instant customer recognition of the brand or the firm (Kotler & Armstrong, 2004)....
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Folding and Aggregation for FREE!

Contact Us