Nobody downloaded yet

Influenza Pandemic - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. A flu pandemic takes place when a new influenza virus emerges for which people have little or no immunity, and for which there is no vaccine. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype emerges that has not formerly circulated in humans…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.5% of users find it useful
Influenza Pandemic
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Influenza Pandemic"

Download file to see previous pages The research explained how the next influenza pandemic may arise and its possible outcome. This paper also discussed the history of Influenza happened in the year 1918, 1957, and 1968. Moreover this research used pictures and tables for effective illustrations of significant information.
An influenza pandemic is a universal outbreak of flu disease that takes place when a new type of influenza virus appears that people have not been exposed to before (Kilbourne ED. 1975). According to Kilbourne ED. (1975) that pandemic flu is a worldwide outbreak of disease that takes place as soon as a new influenza virus appears in humans, causes serious illness and then spreads effortlessly from person to person worldwide.
There are three types of influenza. Influenza A, B and C viruses are known to cause disease in humans. While influenza B and C viruses are strictly human pathogens, influenza Type A viruses are readily isolated from avian species, pigs and other animals. Influenza Type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on differences in the surface glycoprotein antigens, hem agglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 14 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes. All of these subtypes have been isolated in birds but only 3 different HA and two different NA subtypes have been isolated in humans (See table bellow)
The influenza viruses are only one of its kinds amongst the respiratory viruses in that they undergo major antigenic variation (Stuart-Harris C. 1979). Antigenic drift entails minor antigen changes from one season to the next and may result in epidemic spread of the new strain. Antigenic shift entails major antigenic changes of the HA and NA molecules and happens merely with Influenza A viruses. These changes can result in the appearance of pandemic viruses.
In accordance with Stuart-Harris C. (1979) three worldwide outbreaks of influenza occurred in the 20th century: in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Of these, the 1918 Spanish Flu was the most severe, with 50 million or more deaths worldwide. The last 2 were in the era of modern virology and most thoroughly characterized. All 3 have been unofficially identified by the presumed sites of origin as Spanish, Asian, and Hong Kong influenza, respectively. According to Stuart-Harris C. (1979) they are now identified to represent 3 various antigenic subtypes of influenza Type A virus: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2, respectively. Not classified as true pandemics are 3 prominent epidemics: a pseudo pandemic in 1947 with low death rates, an epidemic in 1977 that was a pandemic in children, and an abortive epidemic of swine influenza in 1976 that was feared to have pandemic potential. Major influenza epidemics show no predictable periodicity or pattern, and all differ from one another. Evidence implies that true pandemics with changes in hem agglutinin subtypes take place from genetic reassortment with animal influenza Type A viruses.

No one can foresee when a pandemic might take place, but public health experts think it is only a matter of time before the next one arises. Experts all over the world are watching the H5N1 avian flu condition in Asia very severely and are preparing for the probability that the virus may start to spread more easily and broadly from person to person. If this happens, the next ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Influenza Pandemic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Influenza Pandemic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from
(Influenza Pandemic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
Influenza Pandemic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words.
“Influenza Pandemic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Pandemic Potential of a Strain of Influenza A (H1N1): Early Findings
Therefore, it’s potential to cause a pandemic needs to be assessed. This paper aims to do this. In this paper, we first analyze the H1N1 outbreak timeline followed by the analysis of influenza A (H1N1) itself. Since this paper aims to study the pandemic potential of this strain, we will take a brief look at the history of pandemics followed by a brief look at the phenomenon of pandemics.
20 Pages(5000 words)Research Paper
Influenza Pandamic Essay: Identification and Discussion of Plans or Policy Strengths
As discussed in the earlier article, the Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed the Influenza Pandemic Operation Plan (OPLAN). Additionally the WHO has similar modality of approaching Influenza and taking preventive and corrective measures.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Pandemic Flu Planning
The guide provided by the Department of Health and the Center for Disease Control is sufficient to address the pandemic condition: isolation/quarantine and treatment, social distancing both for children and adults, and information dissemination. These should be undertaken in tandem with community-based strategies particularly that featuring individual infection control measures.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Analyzing the Pathogenesis of Influenza
Influenza is often confused with a common cold, however, it bears distinguishing traits in the sense that its symptoms are more severe. In addition, the etiological factors of the two diseases are different. Influenza affects the respiratory system and may lead to the formation of bacterial or viral pneumonia.
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Today, all the hooplas over and the dread have subsided. But are we correct in our complacency. If the Avian flu hits, are we prepared or has everyone gone lax and assumed that it will not reach the threat that scientists has warned us of the previous years'
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Pandemic Flu
The virus is carried by wild birds and can be rather dangerous for domestic poultry which can in turn affect humans. H5N1 don't currently infect humans, but the virus is constantly changing, and in some cases it can make people sick. About half of infected humans died: as the virus doesn't always cause humans sickness there is no vaccine which could be able to struggle with the virus.
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Pandemic avian influenza
The disease spreads easily from person-to-person, causing serious illness, and can encompass the whole country and even the world in very short time. Avian (bird) flu is caused by influenza A viruses that occur naturally among birds. There are different subtypes of these viruses because of changes in certain proteins (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA]) on the surface of the influenza A virus and the way the proteins combine.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Development of a Policy Document
According to the discussion during influenza pandemic individuals falling ill commonly seek assistance from the health care provider that provides their normal health care needs. This means that health care providers must be prepared to face the extra rush of patients during an influenza pandemic.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Influenza Pandamic
The center for disease control and preventing holds the mandate to oversee successful implementation of the policy, under the department of health and human services. The comprehensive mandate includes
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Flu Pandemic
The plan highlights four important aspects of dealing with an influenza outbreak: early recognition and reporting of a human outbreak;
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Influenza Pandemic for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us